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Modelling the components of binaries in the Hyades: the dependence of the mixing-length parameter on stellar mass
We present our findings based on a detailed analysis of the binaries ofthe Hyades, in which the masses of the components are well known. We fitthe models of the components of a binary system to observations so as togive the observed total V and B-V of that system and the observed slopeof the main sequence in the corresponding parts. According to ourfindings, there is a very definite relationship between themixing-length parameter and the stellar mass. The fitting formula forthis relationship can be given as α= 9.19(M/Msolar-0.74)0.053- 6.65, which is valid for stellar masses greaterthan 0.77Msolar. While no strict information is gathered forthe chemical composition of the cluster, as a result of degeneracy inthe colour-magnitude diagram, by adopting Z= 0.033 and using models forthe components of 70 Tau and θ2 Tau we find thehydrogen abundance to be X= 0.676 and the age to be 670 Myr. If weassume that Z= 0.024, then X= 0.718 and the age is 720 Myr. Our findingsconcerning the mixing-length parameter are valid for both sets of thesolution. For both components of the active binary system V818 Tau, thedifferences between radii of the models with Z= 0.024 and the observedradii are only about 4 per cent. More generally, the effectivetemperatures of the models of low-mass stars in the binary systemsstudied are in good agreement with those determined by spectroscopicmethods.

A Catalog of Temperatures and Red Cousins Photometry for the Hyades
Using Hyades photometry published by Mendoza and other authors,Pinsonneault et al. have recently concluded that Cousins V-I photometrypublished by Taylor & Joner is not on the Cousins system. Extensivetests of the Taylor-Joner photometry and other pertinent results aretherefore performed in this paper. It is found that in part, thePinsonneault et al. conclusion rests on (1) a systematic error inMendoza's (R-I)J photometry and (2) a small error in anapproximate Johnson-to-Cousins transformation published by Bessell. Forthe Taylor-Joner values of (V-R)C, it is found that there arepossible (though not definite) differences of several mmag with otherresults. However, the Taylor-Joner values of (R-I)C data aresupported at the 1 mmag level. Using the (R-I)C data andother published results, an (R-I)C catalog is assembled for146 Hyades stars with spectral types earlier than about K5. For singlestars with multiple contributing data, the rms errors of the catalogentries are less than 4.4 mmag. Temperatures on the Di Benedettoangular-diameter scale are also given in the catalog and are used tohelp update published analyses of high-dispersion values of [Fe/H] forthe Hyades. The best current mean Hyades value of [Fe/H] is found to be+0.103+/-0.008 dex and is essentially unchanged from its previous value.In addition to these numerical results, recommendations are made aboutimproving attitudes and practices that are pertinent to issues likethose raised by Pinsonneault et al.

Seismic constraints on open clusters
The aim of this theoretical and modelling paper is to derive knowledgeon the global and structural parameters of low-mass stars usingasteroseismology and taking advantage of the stellar collective behaviorwithin open clusters. We build stellar models and compute the seismicsignal expected from main sequence objects in the 0.8-1.6Mȯ range. We first evaluate apparent magnitudes andoscillations-induced luminosity fluctuations expected in the Hyades, thePleiades and the α Persei clusters. The closest cluster presents afeasible challenge to observational asteroseismology in the present andnear future. The remainder of the work therefore focuses on the Hyades.We combine seismological and classical computations to address threequestions: what can be inferred about 1) mass; 2) composition; and 3)extension of outer convection zones of solar analogs in the Hyades. Thefirst issue relies on the strong sensitivity of the large separation tomass. We show that seismic constraints provide masses to a precisionlevel (0.05 Mȯ) that is competitive with the actualmass estimations from binary systems. Then large separations (Δν) and second differences (δ2 ν) are used torespectively constrain metal and helium fractions in the Hyades. Whenplotted for several masses, the relation of effective temperature(Teff) vs. large separation (Δ ν) is found to bestrongly dependent on the metal content. Besides this the seconddifference main modulation is related to the second ionization ofhelium. An accuracy in the helium mass fraction of 0.02 to 0.01 can beachieved provided mass and age are accurately known, which is the casefor a few Hyades binary systems. The second difference modulations arealso partly due to the discontinuity in stellar stratification at theconvective envelope/radiative core transition. They permit directinsight in the stellar structure. We compute acoustic radii of theconvective bases for different values of the mixing length theoryparameter αMLT in convection modelling, i.e. differentconvective efficiency in the superadiabatic layers. For a giveneffective temperature we show that the acoustic radius changes withconvection efficiency. This suggests that seismology can provideconstraints on the extension of outer convection and also more generallyon the direct approaches of convection and dynamical phenomena beingcurrently developed.

The O VI and C III Lines at 1032 and 977 Å in Hyades F Stars
We continue our investigations into the mechanisms heating the outerlayers of cool dwarf stars. In this study we specifically seek todetermine whether in the layers with temperatures around 250,000-300,000K, in which the O VI lines are emitted, the temperatures are determinedby heat conduction from the coronae or by the same processes that heatthe lower temperature regions. To study this we discuss here 22 spectraof Hyades F stars taken by the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer(FUSE) satellite to study the O VI lines at 1032 Å and the C IIIlines at 977 Å and compare them with other lower transition layerlines, observed with HST and IUE, and with existing X-ray data. For ourtargets with B-V>0.4, the X-ray fluxes of single F stars increase, onaverage, slowly with increasing B-V, while the O VI line fluxes show thesame steep decrease around B-V=0.43 as previously found for the lowertemperature transition layer lines. For single stars the X-ray fluxesdecrease with increasing vsini, except for the stars with B-V between0.418 and 0.455, while for the O VI lines, as for the other transitionlayer lines, fluxes increase with increasing vsini, if vsini is largerthan 30 km s-1. For smaller vsini, line fluxes areindependent of vsini. The B-V and vsini dependences of the O VI linefluxes are then very different from those of the X-ray fluxes. We thusconclude that for electron temperature Te below 300,000 K,the transition layers for Hyades F stars are not mainly heated by heatconduction from their coronae.Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far UltravioletSpectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) telescope, which is operated for NASA byJohns Hopkins University, under contract NAS5-32985.

Speckle Observations of Binary Stars with the WIYN Telescope. IV. Differential Photometry
Five hundred seventy-six magnitude difference measures are presented for260 binary stars. These measures are derived from CCD-based speckleobservations taken at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak NationalObservatory during the period 1997-2000. Separations of the systemsrange from over 1" down to near the diffraction limit of the telescope.A study of multiple measures of the same targets indicates that themeasures have a typical uncertainty of better than 0.13 mag per 2 minuteobservation, and that multiple observations can be averaged to arrive atsmaller uncertainties. Results presented here are also compared, insofaras it is possible, with measures in the Hipparcos Catalogue and toprevious studies using adaptive optics. No major systematic errors wereidentified.The WIYN Observatory is a joint facility of the University ofWisconsin-Madison, Indiana University, Yale University, and the NationalOptical Astronomy Observatory.

The Geneva-Copenhagen survey of the Solar neighbourhood. Ages, metallicities, and kinematic properties of ˜14 000 F and G dwarfs
We present and discuss new determinations of metallicity, rotation, age,kinematics, and Galactic orbits for a complete, magnitude-limited, andkinematically unbiased sample of 16 682 nearby F and G dwarf stars. Our˜63 000 new, accurate radial-velocity observations for nearly 13 500stars allow identification of most of the binary stars in the sampleand, together with published uvbyβ photometry, Hipparcosparallaxes, Tycho-2 proper motions, and a few earlier radial velocities,complete the kinematic information for 14 139 stars. These high-qualityvelocity data are supplemented by effective temperatures andmetallicities newly derived from recent and/or revised calibrations. Theremaining stars either lack Hipparcos data or have fast rotation. Amajor effort has been devoted to the determination of new isochrone agesfor all stars for which this is possible. Particular attention has beengiven to a realistic treatment of statistical biases and errorestimates, as standard techniques tend to underestimate these effectsand introduce spurious features in the age distributions. Our ages agreewell with those by Edvardsson et al. (\cite{edv93}), despite severalastrophysical and computational improvements since then. We demonstrate,however, how strong observational and theoretical biases cause thedistribution of the observed ages to be very different from that of thetrue age distribution of the sample. Among the many basic relations ofthe Galactic disk that can be reinvestigated from the data presentedhere, we revisit the metallicity distribution of the G dwarfs and theage-metallicity, age-velocity, and metallicity-velocity relations of theSolar neighbourhood. Our first results confirm the lack of metal-poor Gdwarfs relative to closed-box model predictions (the ``G dwarfproblem''), the existence of radial metallicity gradients in the disk,the small change in mean metallicity of the thin disk since itsformation and the substantial scatter in metallicity at all ages, andthe continuing kinematic heating of the thin disk with an efficiencyconsistent with that expected for a combination of spiral arms and giantmolecular clouds. Distinct features in the distribution of the Vcomponent of the space motion are extended in age and metallicity,corresponding to the effects of stochastic spiral waves rather thanclassical moving groups, and may complicate the identification ofthick-disk stars from kinematic criteria. More advanced analyses of thisrich material will require careful simulations of the selection criteriafor the sample and the distribution of observational errors.Based on observations made with the Danish 1.5-m telescope at ESO, LaSilla, Chile, and with the Swiss 1-m telescope at Observatoire deHaute-Provence, France.Complete Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDSvia anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/418/989

Empirically Constrained Color-Temperature Relations. I. BV(RI)C
This investigation presents a set of transformations to Johnson B-V,Cousins V-R, and Cousins V-I, as well as bolometric corrections to V,for [Fe/H]=-3, -2, -1, -0.5, 0.0, and +0.3 and, in each case, values oflogg from -0.5 to 5.0 for 3000 K<=Teff<=5500 K and from2.0 to 5.0 for 6000 K<=Teff<=40,000 K. Thesetransformations employ the predictions from Kurucz model atmospheres athigh temperatures (Teff>=8000 K) and from MARCS modelatmospheres at intermediate temperatures (from 7000 K down to atemperature in the range 4000 K<=Teff<=5500 K,depending on [Fe/H], where adjustments to satisfy observationalconstraints become necessary). Thus, theoretical color-Teffrelations are used exclusively down to a minimum temperature that iscooler than the temperatures of turnoff stars in open and globular starclusters. To better represent the color transformations obeyed by coolstars (down to 3000 K), corrections to the synthetic transformationshave been determined from a careful consideration of observations for afew globular clusters (M92, M68, and 47 Tucanae), the color-magnitudediagrams (CMDs) of several open clusters (M67, the Pleiades, the Hyades,and NGC 6791), the CMDs and mass-luminosity diagram for solarneighborhood stars having good distance measurements from Hipparcos,empirical (B-V)-Teff and (V-K)-Teff relations, andcolor-color diagrams for field giants. The semiempirical colortransformations that have been produced as a result of our analysis arealso compared with several others that have been published in recentyears: some of the deficiencies of the latter are revealed.

Statistical cataloging of archival data for luminosity class IV-V stars. II. The epoch 2001 [Fe/H] catalog
This paper describes the derivation of an updated statistical catalog ofmetallicities. The stars for which those metallicities apply are ofspectral types F, G, and K, and are on or near the main sequence. Theinput data for the catalog are values of [Fe/H] published before 2002February and derived from lines of weak and moderate strength. Theanalyses used to derive the data have been based on one-dimensional LTEmodel atmospheres. Initial adjustments which are applied to the datainclude corrections to a uniform temperature scale which is given in acompanion paper (see Taylor \cite{t02}). After correction, the data aresubjected to a statistical analysis. For each of 941 stars considered,the results of that analysis include a mean value of [Fe/H], an rmserror, an associated number of degrees of freedom, and one or moreidentification numbers for source papers. The catalog of these resultssupersedes an earlier version given by Taylor (\cite{t94b}).Catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/398/731

Statistical cataloging of archival data for luminosity class IV-V stars. I. The epoch 2001 temperature catalog
This paper is one of a pair in which temperatures and metallicitycatalogs for class IV-V stars are considered. The temperature catalogdescribed here is derived from a calibration based on stellar angulardiameters. If published calibrations of this kind are compared by usingcolor-index transformations, temperature-dependent differences among thecalibrations are commonly found. However, such differences are minimizedif attention is restricted to calibrations based on Johnson V-K. Acalibration of this sort from Di Benedetto (\cite{dib98}) is thereforetested and adopted. That calibration is then applied to spectroscopicand photometric data, with the latter predominating. Cousins R-Iphotometry receives special attention because of its high precision andlow metallicity sensitivity. Testing of temperatures derived from thecalibration suggests that their accuracy and precision are satisfactory,though further testing will be warranted as new results appear. Thesetemperatures appear in the catalog as values of theta equiv5040/T(effective). Most of these entries are accompanied by measured orderived values of Cousins R-I. Entries are given for 951 stars.Catalog is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymousftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/398/721

What Is Happening at Spectral Type F5 in Hyades F Stars?
Aiming at a better understanding of the mechanisms heating thechromospheres, transition regions, and coronae of cool stars, we studyultraviolet, low-resolution Hubble Space Telescope/Space TelescopeImaging Spectrograph spectra of Hyades main-sequence F stars. We studythe B-V dependence(s) of the chromospheric and transition layer emissionline fluxes and their dependences on rotational velocities. We find thatthe transition layer emission line fluxes and also those of strongchromospheric lines decrease steeply between B-V=0.42 and 0.45, i.e., atspectral type F5, for which the rotational velocities also decreasesteeply. The magnitude of the line-flux decrease increases for lines ofions with increasing degree of ionization. This shows that the line-fluxdecrease is not due to a change in the surface filling factor but ratherdue to a change of the relative importance of different heatingmechanisms. For early F stars with B-V<0.42 we find for thetransition layer emission lines increasing fluxes for increasing vsini,indicating magnetohydrodynamic heating. The vsini dependence isstrongest for the high-ionization lines. On the other hand, the lowchromospheric lines show no dependence on vsini, indicating acousticshock heating for these layers. This also contributes to the heating ofthe transition layers. The Mg II and Ca II lines show decreasing fluxesfor increasing vsini, as long as vsini is less than ~40 kms-1. The coronal X-ray emission also decreases for increasingvsini, except for vsini larger than ~100 km s-1. We have atpresent no explanation for this behavior. For late F stars thechromospheric lines show vsini dependences similar to those observed forearly F stars, again indicating acoustic heating for these layers. Wewere unable to determine the vsini dependence of the transition layerlines because of too few single star targets. The decrease of emissionline fluxes at the spectral type F5, with steeply decreasing vsini,indicates, however, a decreasing contribution of magnetohydrodynamicheating for the late F stars. The X-ray emission for the late F starsincreases for increasing vsini, indicating magnetohydrodynamic heatingfor the coronae of the late F stars, different from the early F stars.Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtainedat the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by theAssociation of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Incorporated,under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

Speckle Observations of Binary Stars with the WIYN Telescope. II. Relative Astrometry Measures during 1998-2000
Five hundred twelve relative astrometry measures are presented for 253double stars, including 53 double stars discovered by Hipparcos. In 15cases, relative astrometry is reported for the first time for newlyconfirmed pairs. In addition, 20 high-quality nondetections ofcompanions are reported for stars suspected of being nonsingle byHipparcos. Observations were taken using a fast-readout CCD camerasystem at the WIYN 3.5 m telescope at Kitt Peak, Arizona. In comparingthese measures with ephemeris predictions for binary stars with verywell known orbits, we find that the measurement precision is better than3 mas in separation and 1° in position angle per individualobservation. Measurement precision and detection capabilities are fullydiscussed, and confirmed orbital motion is reported in four cases of theHipparcos double star discoveries. The WIYN Observatory is a jointfacility of the University of Wisconsin-Madison, Indiana University,Yale University, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory.

Astrometric radial velocities. III. Hipparcos measurements of nearby star clusters and associations
Radial motions of stars in nearby moving clusters are determined fromaccurate proper motions and trigonometric parallaxes, without any use ofspectroscopy. Assuming that cluster members share the same velocityvector (apart from a random dispersion), we apply a maximum-likelihoodmethod on astrometric data from Hipparcos to compute radial and spacevelocities (and their dispersions) in the Ursa Major, Hyades, ComaBerenices, Pleiades, and Praesepe clusters, and for theScorpius-Centaurus, alpha Persei, and ``HIP 98321'' associations. Theradial motion of the Hyades cluster is determined to within 0.4 kms-1 (standard error), and that of its individual stars towithin 0.6 km s-1. For other clusters, Hipparcos data yieldastrometric radial velocities with typical accuracies of a few kms-1. A comparison of these astrometric values withspectroscopic radial velocities in the literature shows a good generalagreement and, in the case of the best-determined Hyades cluster, alsopermits searches for subtle astrophysical differences, such as evidencefor enhanced convective blueshifts of F-dwarf spectra, and decreasedgravitational redshifts in giants. Similar comparisons for the ScorpiusOB2 complex indicate some expansion of its associations, albeit slowerthan expected from their ages. As a by-product from the radial-velocitysolutions, kinematically improved parallaxes for individual stars areobtained, enabling Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams with unprecedentedaccuracy in luminosity. For the Hyades (parallax accuracy 0.3 mas), itsmain sequence resembles a thin line, possibly with wiggles in it.Although this main sequence has underpopulated regions at certaincolours (previously suggested to be ``Böhm-Vitense gaps''), suchare not visible for other clusters, and are probably spurious. Futurespace astrometry missions carry a great potential for absoluteradial-velocity determinations, insensitive to the complexities ofstellar spectra. Based on observations by the ESA Hipparcos satellite.Extended versions of Tables \ref{tab1} and \ref{tab2} are available inelectronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/381/446

Mg II Emission Lines of Hyades F Stars
With the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) we have observed Hyades F stars,using the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS), in order to getmore information about the heating mechanism(s) for the chromospheresand transition layers and their dependence on rotation and age. In thispaper we study the Mg II lines at 2800 Å. We include earlierobservations with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE)satellite. The Mg II emission lines become observable for B-V>0.3.The emission line fluxes increase steeply until B-V~0.40. For singlestars there is a steep decrease in flux between B-V=0.41 and B-V=0.44,similar to the behavior of the Ca II emission line cores. For larger B-Vthe Mg II emission line fluxes again increase, but much more slowly thanfor the Ca II lines. Generally, the low point of the emission is reachedbetween B-V=0.43 and B-V=0.45, i.e., similar to the Ca II emissioncores. For the Hyades F stars there appears to be a difference betweenthe emissions for single stars and those for binaries. We find that forHyades stars with surface line fluxes larger than 106 ergscm-2 s-1 the emission line fluxes decrease withincreasing vsini. For smaller fluxes they may increase with increasingvsini. We have only three stars that perhaps show this. We study theflux ratios of the Mg II k and h lines at 2795.7 and 2802.5 Å inorder to determine where the lines fall on the curve of growth. For theearliest F stars studied here the ratio is close to 2, as expected foroptically thin lines. Generally, it seems that the optical depths in theline centers are less than 10. There remain problems in understandingthe size of the line widths. We discuss the interpretation of theWilson-Bappu effect. For the Hyades F stars there is a strong dependenceof the line width on the effective temperature. Based on observationswith the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space TelescopeScience Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universitiesfor Research in Astronomy. Incorporated, under NASA contract NAS5-26555.

The Physical Basis of Luminosity Classification in the Late A-, F-, and Early G-Type Stars. II. Basic Parameters of Program Stars and the Role of Microturbulence
Paper I of this series presented precise MK spectral types for 372 lateA-, F-, and early G-type stars with the aim of understanding the natureof luminosity classification on the MK spectral classification systemfor this range of spectral types. In this paper, a multidimensionaldownhill simplex technique is introduced to determine the basicparameters of the program stars from fits of synthetic spectra andfluxes with observed spectra and fluxes from Strömgren uvbyphotometry. This exercise yields useful calibrations of the MK spectralclassification system but, most importantly, gives insight into thephysical nature of luminosity classification on the MK spectralclassification system. In particular, we find that in this range ofspectral types, microturbulence appears to be at least as important asgravity in determining the MK luminosity type.

The Physical Basis of Luminosity Classification in the Late A-, F-, and Early G-Type Stars. I. Precise Spectral Types for 372 Stars
This is the first in a series of two papers that address the problem ofthe physical nature of luminosity classification in the late A-, F-, andearly G-type stars. In this paper, we present precise spectralclassifications of 372 stars on the MK system. For those stars in theset with Strömgren uvbyβ photometry, we derive reddenings andpresent a calibration of MK temperature types in terms of the intrinsicStrömgren (b-y)0 index. We also examine the relationshipbetween the luminosity class and the Strömgren c1 index,which measures the Balmer jump. The second paper will address thederivation of the physical parameters of these stars, and therelationships between these physical parameters and the luminosityclass. Stars classified in this paper include one new λ Bootisstar and 10 of the F- and G-type dwarfs with recently discoveredplanets.

The helium content and age of the Hyades:. Constraints from five binary systems and Hipparcos parallaxes
We compare the accurate empirical mass-luminosity (M-L) relation basedon five Hyades binary systems to predictions of stellar modelscalculated with various input parameters (helium, metallicity and age)or physics (mixing-length ratio, model atmosphere, equation of state andmicroscopic diffusion). Models based on a helium content Y ~ 0.28inferred from the Delta Y/Delta Z enrichment law are more than 3sigmabeyond the observations, suggesting that the Hyades initial heliumabundance is lower than expected from its supersolar metallicity. Withthe photometric metallicity ([Fe/H] = 0.144+/- 0.013 dex, Grenon\cite{gre00}) we derive Y=0.255+/-0.009. Because of the (Y, [Fe/H])degeneracy in the M-L plane, the uncertainty grows to Delta Y=0.013 ifthe metallicity from spectroscopy is adopted ([Fe/H] = 0.14+/-0.05 dex,Cayrel de Strobel et al. \cite{cayG97}). We use these results to discussthe Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram of the Hyades, in the(MV, B-V) plane, based on the very precise Hipparcosdynamical parallaxes. Present models fit the tight observed sequencevery well except at low temperatures. We show that the HR diagram doesnot bring further constraints on the helium abundance or metallicity ofthe cluster. In the low mass region of the HR diagram sensitive to themixing-length parameter (alpha MLT), the slope of the mainsequence (MS) suggests that alpha MLT could decrease from asolar (or even supersolar) value at higher mass to subsolar values atlow mass, which is also supported by the modeling of the vB22 M-Lrelation. We find that the discrepancy at low temperatures ((B-V)>≈ 1.2) remains, even if an improved equation of state or bettermodel atmospheres are used. Finally, we discuss the positions of thestars at turn-off in the light of their observed rotation rates and wededuce that the maxiμm age of the Hyades predicted by the presentmodels is ~650 Myr.

A Hipparcos study of the Hyades open cluster. Improved colour-absolute magnitude and Hertzsprung-Russell diagrams
Hipparcos parallaxes fix distances to individual stars in the Hyadescluster with an accuracy of ~ 6 percent. We use the Hipparcos propermotions, which have a larger relative precision than the trigonometricparallaxes, to derive ~ 3 times more precise distance estimates, byassuming that all members share the same space motion. An investigationof the available kinematic data confirms that the Hyades velocity fielddoes not contain significant structure in the form of rotation and/orshear, but is fully consistent with a common space motion plus a(one-dimensional) internal velocity dispersion of ~ 0.30 kms-1. The improved parallaxes as a set are statisticallyconsistent with the Hipparcos parallaxes. The maximum expectedsystematic error in the proper motion-based parallaxes for stars in theouter regions of the cluster (i.e., beyond ~ 2 tidal radii ~ 20 pc) isla 0.30 mas. The new parallaxes confirm that the Hipparcos measurementsare correlated on small angular scales, consistent with the limitsspecified in the Hipparcos Catalogue, though with significantly smaller``amplitudes'' than claimed by Narayanan & Gould. We use the Tycho-2long time-baseline astrometric catalogue to derive a set of independentproper motion-based parallaxes for the Hipparcos members. The newparallaxes provide a uniquely sharp view of the three-dimensionalstructure of the Hyades. The colour-absolute magnitude diagram of thecluster based on the new parallaxes shows a well-defined main sequencewith two ``gaps''/``turn-offs''. These features provide the first directobservational support of Böhm-Vitense's prediction that (the onsetof) surface convection in stars significantly affects their (B-V)colours. We present and discuss the theoretical Hertzsprung-Russelldiagram (log L versus log T_eff) for an objectively defined set of 88high-fidelity members of the cluster as well as the delta Scuti startheta 2 Tau, the giants delta 1, theta1, epsilon , and gamma Tau, and the white dwarfs V471 Tau andHD 27483 (all of which are also members). The precision with which thenew parallaxes place individual Hyades in the Hertzsprung-Russelldiagram is limited by (systematic) uncertainties related to thetransformations from observed colours and absolute magnitudes toeffective temperatures and luminosities. The new parallaxes providestringent constraints on the calibration of such transformations whencombined with detailed theoretical stellar evolutionary modelling,tailored to the chemical composition and age of the Hyades, over thelarge stellar mass range of the cluster probed by Hipparcos.

Electronic Article Available from Elsevier Science.

Stellar Structure and Evolution: Deductions from Hipparcos
During the last decade, the understanding of fine features of thestructure and evolution of stars has become possible as a result ofenormous progress made in the acquisition of high-quality observationaland experimental data, and of new developments and refinements in thetheoretical description of stellar plasmas. The confrontation ofhigh-quality observations with sophisticated stellar models has allowedmany aspects of the theory to be validated, and several characteristicsof stars relevant to Galactic evolution and cosmology to be inferred.This paper is a review of the results of recent studies undertaken inthe context of the Hipparcos mission, taking benefit of the high-qualityastrometric data it has provided. Successes are discussed, as well asthe problems that have arisen and suggestions proposed to solve them.Future observational and theoretical developments expected and requiredin the field are also presented.

In-Flight Calibration of the ROSAT HRI Ultraviolet Sensitivity
Comparing measured and estimated count rates of a few selected samplestars, we confirm the validity and provide the in-flight calibration ofthe ROSAT HRI UV/visible effective area model in Zombeck et al. Thecount rate estimates for Betelgeuse derived with this model are inagreement with the measured HRI upper limit. This result is alsoconfirmed in an erratum by Berghöfer et al. aimed at revising theirprevious calculation, which was overestimated by more than 2 orders ofmagnitude. Adopting this ROSAT HRI UV/visible effective area model andmeasured UV/visible spectra of a set of sample stars covering the rangeof Teff 3000-40,000 K, we have built the calibration curvesto estimate UV/visible contamination count rates for any star of knownTeff, mv, and NH.

ICCD Speckle Observations of Binary Stars. XXIII. Measurements during 1982-1997 from Six Telescopes, with 14 New Orbits
We present 2017 observations of 1286 binary stars, observed by means ofspeckle interferometry using six telescopes over a 15 year period from1982 April to 1997 June. These measurements constitute the 23dinstallment in CHARA's speckle program at 2 to 4 m class telescopes andinclude the second major collection of measurements from the MountWilson 100 inch (2.5 m) Hooker Telescope. Orbital elements are alsopresented for 14 systems, seven of which have had no previouslypublished orbital analyses.

Resolved double-lined spectroscopic binaries: A neglected source of hypothesis-free parallaxes and stellar masses
Double-lined spectroscopic binaries, once visually resolved (VB-SB2),provide hypothesis-free orbital parallaxes and masses of bothcomponents. Unlike eclipsing-spectroscopic binaries for which manyaccurate masses are already known (Andersen 1991; Andersen 1997), thenumber of VB-SB2 remains rather small. This paper presents 40 suchsystems for which published visual observations and radial velocitiesallow a simultaneous adjustment of both data sets. The precision of theindividual masses as well as the evolution of that precision withrespect to the published precision is investigated.

Evolution of X-ray activity of 1-3 Msun late-type stars in early post-main-sequence phases
We have investigated the variation of coronal X-ray emission duringearly post-main-sequence phases for a sample of 120 late-type starswithin 100 pc, and with estimated masses in the range 1-3Msun, based on Hipparcos parallaxes and recent evolutionarymodels. These stars were observed with the ROSAT/PSPC, and the dataprocessed with the Palermo-CfA pipeline, including detection andevaluation of X-ray fluxes (or upper limits) by means of a wavelettransform algorithm. We have studied the evolutionary history of X-rayluminosity and surface flux for stars in selected mass ranges, includingstars with inactive A-type progenitors on the main sequence and lowermass solar-type stars. Our stellar sample suggests a trend of increasingX-ray emission level with age for stars with masses M > 1.5Msun, and a decline for lower-mass stars. A similar behaviorholds for the average coronal temperature, which follows a power-lawcorrelation with the X-ray luminosity, independently of their mass andevolutionary state. We have also studied the relationship between X-rayluminosity and surface rotation rate for stars in the same mass ranges,and how this relationships departs from the Lx ~vrot2 law followed by main-sequence stars. Ourresults are interpreted in terms of a magnetic dynamo whose efficiencydepends on the stellar evolutionary state through the mass-dependentchanges of the stellar internal structure, including the properties ofenvelope convection and the internal rotation profile.

Kinematics versus X-ray luminosity segregation in the Hyades
State of the art Tycho-2 proper motions of bona fide Hyades members areused in combination with the ROSAT X-ray survey of this open cluster inStern et al. (1995) to study the internal velocity dispersion versusX-ray luminosity by the classical convergent point method. It is shownin this paper for the Hyades members with B-V below 0.7 mag that starsbrighter than 1.3x 1029 erg s-1 (0.1-1.8 keV) havemuch more coherent motions than those with smaller X-ray luminositiesand those not detected by ROSAT at all. In fact, the proper motions ofthe X-ray luminous members are in agreement with a null internaldispersion of velocities for this subpopulation, whereas theintermediate bright X-ray stars exhibit a dispersion at 320 ms-1. The non-emitters, despite their being more massive andoptically brighter, have a velocity dispersion of about 440 ms-1. Probably related to this fact, the strong X-ray emittersare more concentrated within the tidal radius (10 pc) of the clustercentre than the non-emitters. Nearly half of strong X-ray emitters withcoherent motions are visual or orbiting pairs with typical separations 5to 50 AU. This find implies that a group of intermediate mass (1.0 to1.5 solar masses) stars in the Hyades is significantly younger than therest and their system is not yet dynamically relaxed.

A Precision Test of HIPPARCOS Systematics toward the Hyades
We propose a test that can in principle detect any systematic errors inthe Hipparcos parallaxes toward the Hyades cluster at the level of 0.3mas. We show that the statistical parallax algorithm subsumes theclassical moving cluster methods and provides more precise estimates ofthe distance and the first two moments of the velocity distribution ofthe Hyades cluster, namely, its bulk space velocity and the velocitydispersion tensor. To test the Hipparcos parallaxes, we first rescalethe bulk velocity determined from statistical parallax to forceagreement with the distance scale determined from Hipparcos parallaxes.We then predict the parallaxes of Hyades cluster members using thiscommon cluster space velocity and their Hipparcos proper motions. Weshow that the parallaxes determined in this manner (pi_pm) areconsistent at the 1 sigma level with the parallaxes (pi_orb) of threeHyades spectroscopic binary systems with orbital solutions. We find that=0.52+/-0.47 mas, where the error is dominated bythe errors in the orbital parallaxes. A reduction in these errors wouldallow a test of the systematic errors in the Hipparcos parallaxes at the0.3 mas level. If the Hyades distance scale is fixed by Hipparcosparallaxes, then its bulk velocity in equatorial coordinates is(V_x,V_y,V_z)=(-5.70+/-0.20, 45.62+/-0.11, 5.65+/-0.08) kms^-1, itsvelocity dispersion is 320+/-39 m s^-1, and the distance modulus to thecentroid of our sample of 43 cluster members is 3.34+/-0.02 mag.

The Second Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer Right Angle Program Catalog
We present the detection of 235 extreme ultraviolet sources, of which169 are new detections, using the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer's (EUVE)Right Angle Program (RAP) data. This catalog includes observations sincethe first EUVE RAP catalog (1994 January) and covers 17% of the sky. TheEUVE RAP uses the all-sky survey telescopes (also known as``scanners''), mounted at right angles to the Deep Survey andspectrometer instruments, to obtain photometric data in four wavelengthbands centered at ~100 Å (Lexan/B), ~200 Å (Al/Ti/C), ~400Å (Ti/Sb/Al), and ~550 Å (Sn/SiO). This allows the RAP toaccumulate data serendipitously during pointed spectroscopicobservations. The long exposure times possible with RAP observationsprovide much greater sensitivity than the all-sky survey. We presentEUVE source count rates and probable source identifications from theavailable catalogs and literature. The source distribution is similar toprevious extreme ultraviolet (EUV) catalogs with 2% early-type stars,45% late-type stars, 8% white dwarfs, 6% extragalactic, 24% with no firmclassification, and 15% with no optical identification. We also present36 detections of early-type stars that are probably the result ofnon-EUV radiation. We have detected stellar flares from approximately 12sources, including: EUVE J0008+208, M4 star G32-6 (EUVE J0016+198), anew source EUVE J0202+105, EUVE J0213+368, RS CVn V711 Tau (EUVEJ0336+005), BY Draconis type variable V837 Tau (EUVE J0336+259), the newK5 binary EUVE J0725-004, EUVE J1147+050, EUVE J1148-374, EUVE J1334-083(EQ Vir), EUVE J1438-432 (WT 486/487), EUVE J1808+297, and the M5.5estar G208-45 (EUVE J1953+444). We present sample light curves for thebrighter sources.

Speckle Observations of Binary Stars with the WIYN Telescope. I. Measures During 1997
Two hundred seventy-seven position angle and separation measures of 154double stars are presented. Three of the systems were previously unknownto be double, and 16 other systems were discovered earlier this decadeby the Hipparcos satellite. Measures are derived from speckleobservations taken with the Wisconsin-Indiana-Yale-NOAO (WIYN) 3.5 mtelescope located at Kitt Peak, Arizona. Speckle images were obtainedusing two different imaging detectors, namely, a multianode microchannelarray (MAMA) detector and a fast-readout CCD. A measurement precisionstudy was performed on a sample of binaries with extremely well knownorbits by comparing the measures obtained here to the ephemerispredictions. For the CCD, the root mean square (rms) deviation ofresiduals was found to be 3.5 milliarcseconds (mas) in separation and1.2d in position angle, while the residuals of the MAMA data varieddepending on the magnification used and seeing conditions but can becomparable or superior to the CCD values. In addition, the two cameraswere compared in terms of the detection limit in total magnitude andmagnitude difference of the systems under study. The MAMA system has theability to detect some systems with magnitude differences larger than3.5, although reliable astrometry could not be obtained on theseobjects. Reliable astrometry was obtained on a system of magnitudedifference of 5.3 with the CCD system.

Chemical abundances of A and F-type stars: the Hyades open cluster
Abundances of 11 chemical elements have been determined for 29 F and 19A dwarfs (``normal'' and chemically peculiar with apparent rotationalvelocities ranging from 11 to 237 km.s^{-1}) members of the Hyadescluster using Takeda's (1995) iterative procedure well suited for fastrotators. High quality spectra of high to moderate resolution have beensynthesized to derive the apparent rotational velocities, microturbulentvelocities and abundances of C, O, Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Fe, Ni, Y and Ba.For the F stars, the found abundances are compared to the predictions ofTurcotte et al.'s (1998) evolutionary models for the age of the Hyades.We fail to find the expected underabundances for light elements nor theoverabundances for the iron-peak elements for stars having effectivetemperatures greater than 6500 K. This suggests that diffusion alonecannot account for the derived abundances: other transport processeswhich counteract diffusion are probably at play. For the A stars,abundances of Na, Mg, Si, Ca, Fe, Ni and Ba are anticorrelated(correlated for O) with the apparent equatorial velocities forve\sin i higher than ~ 100 km.s^{-1}. Below this value, wefind no correlation in agreement with the predictions of Charbonneau& Michaud (1991) except possibly for the abundance of Ni which mightbe anticorrelated with ve\sin i. The fastest rotators(ve\sin i >= 150 km.s^{-1}) are strongly depletted in Mg,Si, Ca, Fe, Ni and Ba (between -0.3 dex and -0.94 dex) while their Oabundance is normal. Based on observations collected at Observatoire deHaute Provence (France)

Visual binary orbits and masses POST HIPPARCOS
The parallaxes from Hipparcos are an important ingredient to derive moreaccurate masses for known orbital binaries, but in order to exploit theparallaxes fully, the orbital elements have to be known to similarprecision. The present work gives improved orbital elements for some 205systems by combining the Hipparcos astrometry with existing ground-basedobservations. The new solutions avoid the linearity constraints andomissions in the Hipparcos Catalog by using the intermediate TransitData which can be combined with ground-based observations in arbitarilycomplex orbital models. The new orbital elements and parallaxes give newmass-sum values together with realistic total error-estimates. To getindividual masses at least for main-sequence systems, the mass-ratioshave been generally estimated from theoretical isochrones and observedmagnitude-differences. For some 25 short-period systems, however, trueastrometric mass-ratios have been determined through the observedorbital curvature in the 3-year Hipparcos observation interval. Thefinal result is an observed `mass-luminosity relation' which falls closeto theoretical expectation, but with `outliers' due to undetectedmultiplicity or to composition- and age-effects in the nonuniformnear-star sample. Based in part on observations collected with the ESAHipparcos astrometry satellite. Tables~ 1, 3, 4 and 6 are also availablein electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr~( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Oxygen and Nitrogen Abundances in Hyades F Type Dwarfs
The abundances of oxygen and nitrogen were investigated for elevenHyades F type main-sequence stars, based on the line-profile of O I (+FeI) 8446 and the equivalent-widths of N I 8629/8683, in order to examinewhether any conspicuous abundance deficiency exists for O and N at T_eff~ 6700 K similar to that observed for Li, since its possibility wassuggested by the diffusion interpretation of this ``Li-chasm''. Itturned out, however, that the abundances appear to be nearly independentof T_eff (and v_e sin i ) for both O and N, without showing any apparentdip larger than ~ 0.2 dex (for O) or ~ 0.3 dex (for N), being consistentwith the results of García-Lopez et al.'s (1993, AAA 58.114.068)study for oxygen. This may indicate that the diffusion process alone isprobably not responsible for the origin of the Li-gap. Regarding theaveraged O and N abundances in these Hyades F stars, a moderate N-excessby ~ 0.3 dex relative to the Sun was suggested (though not definite),with oxygen being nearly normal.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:04h25m37.30s
Apparent magnitude:6.46
Distance:46.577 parsecs
Proper motion RA:105.1
Proper motion Dec:-24.7
B-T magnitude:7.023
V-T magnitude:6.49

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
Flamsteed70 Tau
HD 1989HD 27991
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 1265-1171-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 1050-01257194
BSC 1991HR 1391
HIPHIP 20661

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