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|Polaris: Amplitude, Period Change, and Companions|
Polaris has presented us with the rare phenomenon of a Cepheid with apulsation amplitude that has decreased over the last 50 yr. In thisstudy we have used this property to see whether the amplitude decreaseduring the last 15 yr has had any effect on upper atmosphere heating. Weobtained IUE high- and low-resolution spectra but found no change ineither the Mg II chromospheric emission or the flux at 1800 Åbetween 1978 and 1993 when the pulsation amplitude dropped by 50% (from2.8 to 1.6 km s-1). The energy distribution from 1700 Åthrough V, B, R(KC), and I(KC) is like that of a nonvariable supergiantof the same color rather than a full amplitude Cepheid in that it hasmore flux at 1800 Å than the full amplitude Cepheid δ Cep.Polaris also has a rapidly changing period (3.2 s yr-1), incommon with other overtone pulsators. We argue that this is a naturalconsequence of the different envelope locations that dominate pulsationgrowth rates in fundamental and overtone pulsation. In fundamental modepulsators, the deeper envelope is more important in determining growthrates than for overtone pulsators. For fundamental mode pulsators,evolutionary changes in the radius produce approximately linear changesin period. In overtone pulsators, pulsation reacts to small evolutionarychanges in a more unstable way because the modes are more sensitive tohigh envelope features such as opacity bumps, and the growth rates forthe many closely spaced overtone modes change easily. Finally, the upperlimit to the X-ray flux from an Einstein observation implies that thecompanion in the astrometric orbit is earlier than F4 V. The combinationof upper and lower limits on the companion from IUE and Einsteinrespectively catch the companion mass between 1.7 and 1.4Msolar. The X-ray limit is consistent with the more distantcompanion α UMi B being a physical companion in a hierarchaltriple system. However the X-ray limits require that the even moredistant companions α UMi C and D are too old to be physicallyassociated with Polaris.
|On the Wilson-Bappu relationship in the Mg II k line|
An investigation is carried out on the Wilson-Bappu effect in the Mg Iik line at 2796.34 Å. The work is based on a selection of 230 starsobserved by both the IUE and HIPPARCOS satellites, covering a wide rangeof spectral types (F to M) and absolute visual magnitudes (-5.4<=MV <=9.0). A semi-automatic procedure is used to measurethe line widths, which applies also in the presence of strong centralabsorption reversal. The Wilson-Bappu relationship here provided isconsidered to represent an improvement over previous recent results forthe considerably larger data sample used, as well as for a properconsideration of the measurement errors. No evidence has been found fora possible dependence of the WB effect on stellar metallicity andeffective temperature.
|Catalogue of Apparent Diameters and Absolute Radii of Stars (CADARS) - Third edition - Comments and statistics|
The Catalogue, available at the Centre de Données Stellaires deStrasbourg, consists of 13 573 records concerning the results obtainedfrom different methods for 7778 stars, reported in the literature. Thefollowing data are listed for each star: identifications, apparentmagnitude, spectral type, apparent diameter in arcsec, absolute radiusin solar units, method of determination, reference, remarks. Commentsand statistics obtained from CADARS are given. The Catalogue isavailable in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (18.104.22.168) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcar?J/A+A/367/521
|Research Note Hipparcos photometry: The least variable stars|
The data known as the Hipparcos Photometry obtained with the Hipparcossatellite have been investigated to find those stars which are leastvariable. Such stars are excellent candidates to serve as standards forphotometric systems. Their spectral types suggest in which parts of theHR diagrams stars are most constant. In some cases these values stronglyindicate that previous ground based studies claiming photometricvariability are incorrect or that the level of stellar activity haschanged. Table 2 is only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (22.214.171.124) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/367/297
|The proper motions of fundamental stars. I. 1535 stars from the Basic FK5|
A direct combination of the positions given in the HIPPARCOS cataloguewith astrometric ground-based catalogues having epochs later than 1939allows us to obtain new proper motions for the 1535 stars of the BasicFK5. The results are presented as the catalogue Proper Motions ofFundamental Stars (PMFS), Part I. The median precision of the propermotions is 0.5 mas/year for mu alpha cos delta and 0.7mas/year for mu delta . The non-linear motions of thephotocentres of a few hundred astrometric binaries are separated intotheir linear and elliptic motions. Since the PMFS proper motions do notinclude the information given by the proper motions from othercatalogues (HIPPARCOS, FK5, FK6, etc.) this catalogue can be used as anindependent source of the proper motions of the fundamental stars.Catalogue (Table 3) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (126.96.36.199) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/222
|Ca II activity and rotation in F-K evolved stars|
Ca II H and K high resolution observations for 60 evolved stars in thefield and in 5 open clusters are presented. From these spectrachromospheric fluxes are derived, and a homogeneous sample of more than100 giants is built adding data from the literature. In addition, formost stars, rotational velocities were derived from CORAVELobservations. By comparing chromospheric emission in the cluster starswe confirm the results of Pasquini & Brocato (1992): chromosphericactivity depends on the stellar effective temperature, and mass, whenintermediate mass stars (M ~ 4 Msun) are considered. TheHyades and the Praesepe clump giants show the same level of activity, asexpected from stars with similar masses and effective temperatures. Adifference of up to 0.4 dex in the chromospheric fluxes among the Hyadesgiants is recorded and this sets a clear limit to the intrinsic spreadof stellar activity in evolved giants. These differences in otherwisevery similar stars are likely due to stellar cycles and/or differencesin the stellar initial angular momentum. Among the field stars none ofthe giants with (V-R)o < 0.4 and Ia supergiants observedshows a signature of Ca II activity; this can be due either to the realabsence of a chromosphere, but also to other causes which preclude theappearance of Ca II reversal. By analyzing the whole sample we find thatchromospheric activity scales linearly with stellar rotational velocityand a high power of stellar effective temperature: F'k ~Teff7.7 (Vsini)0.9. This result can beinterpreted as the effect of two chromospheric components of differentnature: one mechanical and one magnetic. Alternatively, by using theHipparcos parallaxes and evolutionary tracks, we divide the sampleaccording to the stellar masses, and we follow the objects along anevolutionary track. For each range of masses activity can simply beexpressed as a function of only one parameter: either theTeff or the angular rotation Omega , with laws F'k~ Omega alpha , because angular velocity decreases witheffective temperature along an evolutionary track. By using theevolutionary tracks and the observed Vsini we investigate the evolutionof the angular momentum for evolved stars in the range 1-5Msun. For the 1.6-3 solar mass stars the data are consistentwith the IOmega =const law while lower and higher masses follow a lawsimilar to IOmega 2=const, where I is the computed stellarmomentum of inertia. We find it intriguing that Vsini remains almostconstant for 1Msun stars along their evolution; if a similarbehavior is shared by Pop II stars, this could explain the relativelyhigh degree of activity observed in Pop II giants. Finally, through theuse of models, we have verified the consistency of the F'k ~Omega alpha and the IOmega beta = Const lawsderived, finding an excellent agreement. This representation, albeitcrude (the models do not consider, for instance, mass losses) representsthe evolution of Ca II activity and of the angular momentum in asatisfactory way in most of the portion of HR diagram analyzed.Different predictions could be tested with observations in selectedclusters. Based on observations collected at ESO, La Silla. Tables 1-3are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp tocdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (188.8.131.52) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|Spectroscopic binary orbits from photoelectric radial velocities. Paper 148: HR 7955|
|Photometric behaviour of eta Carinae, a celestial Chinese lantern: 1974-1998|
We discuss 24 y of optical photometry of eta Carinae, among which newGeneva photometry made between 1994 and 1998. Various conclusions fromour previous photometric studies are confirmed. The core hides a normalS Dor variable (or LBV): it shows light variations on a time scale of1-4 y, with superimposed micro oscillations whose quasi-period indicatesa temperature in the order of 22 000 K. Therefore, a more complicatedmodel for eta Car is necessary to explain its extraordinary appearanceand phenomena exhibited in the past and at present. An analysis of thebrightness of eta Car in the ultraviolet (UV) passbands of threephotometric systems (Walraven, Strömgren and Geneva) reveals thepresence of an important variable UV source, which appears to bemodulated with the 5.52 y period of the spectroscopic events, related tothe possible revolution of an excentric binary of the type proposed byDamineli et al. (1997). Our new data support the luminous disk modelsuggested by van Genderen et al. (1994, 1995). A very hot companion ofthe LBV would be responsible for the excitation of the disk. We suspectthat the flare-like event in the X-ray flux and in the optical andnear-infrared light around 1998.0 was the result of the encounter of theinterface of the colliding winds of the binary with an arm-shapeddensity enhancement in a disk around the LBV (not necessarily ``the"luminous disk). We suppose that this encounter created an intenseX-ray/hot spot region. The subsequent steep decline of the flare isascribed to an eclipse of the X-ray/hot spot by the wind interface. Theradio flux variation of the gas torus in the equatorial plane at adistance of 2arcsec from the core, could be the result of the luminousdisk becoming optically thin. This would, obviously, start abruptly nearthe time of periastron passage and would last for a few yearsthereafter, so that a hot star, normally enshrouded by the disk, is ableto excite the outer gas torus. The creation of the X-ray/hot spot, witha life-time of at most a few months, could also be the cause of theinstantanious physical change of the luminous disk mentioned above (andits 5.52 y modulation) visible in the UV, since both happen at the sametime. Apart from the 5.52 y period in the UV, we found a striking 200d-oscillation, also in the UV, during the last orbital cycle beween1992.5 and 1998.0. Its possible explanation depends on whether it iscyclic or truly periodic (in the latter case eta Car could hide a triplestar). Based on observations obtained at the former Leiden SouthernStation in South Africa and the European Southern Observatory at LaSilla, Chile
|Recalibration of the Wilson-Bappu Effect Using the Singly Ionized Magnesium K Line|
A new calibration of the Wilson-Bappu effect is presented using datafrom a survey of the singly ionized magnesium (Mg ii) h and k lines(near 280 nm) taken from the archives of the International UltravioletExplorer satellite. Our sample consisted of 94 stars with absolutemagnitudes derived from parallaxes reported from Hipparcos. We describethe dependencies of the base widths, peak widths, and full widths athalf-maximum (FWHM) on the fundamental stellar parameters T_eff,metallicity, log g, and activity.
|The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright late-type giants and supergiants|
We present X-ray data for all late-type (A, F, G, K, M) giants andsupergiants (luminosity classes I to III-IV) listed in the Bright StarCatalogue that have been detected in the ROSAT all-sky survey.Altogether, our catalogue contains 450 entries of X-ray emitting evolvedlate-type stars, which corresponds to an average detection rate of about11.7 percent. The selection of the sample stars, the data analysis, thecriteria for an accepted match between star and X-ray source, and thedetermination of X-ray fluxes are described. Catalogue only available atCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (184.108.40.206) or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html
|The pulsating yellow supergiant V810 Centauri|
The F8 Ia supergiant V810 Centauri is part of along-term high-precision photometric monitoring program on long periodvariables started twenty years ago. Time series analysis of this uniqueset of 500 data points, spanning almost fifteen years in the homogeneousGeneva photometric system, is presented. Cluster membership, physicalparameters and evolutionary status of the star are reinvestigated.Radial velocity data do not support the cluster membership toStock 14. Ultraviolet and optical spectrophotometryis combined with optical and infrared photometry to evaluate thephysical parameters of the yellow supergiant (T_eff = 5970 K, M_bol =-8.5, R = 420 Rsun) and of its B0 III companion. Fromtheoretical stellar evolutionary tracks, an initial mass of ~ 25Msun is estimated for V810 Cen, which isactually at the end of its first redward evolution. V810Cen is a multi-periodic small amplitude variable star, whoseamplitudes are variable with time. The period of the main mode, ~ 156 d,is in agreement with the Period-Luminosity-Colour relation forsupergiants. This mode is most probably the fundamental radial one.According to the theoretical pulsation periods for the radial modes,calculated from a linear non-adiabatic analysis, the period of theobserved second mode, ~ 107 d, is much too long to correspond to thefirst radial overtone . Thus, this second mode could be a non-radialp-mode. Other transient periods are observed, in particular at ~ 187 d.The length of this period suggests a non-radial g-mode. Then, thecomplex variability of V810 Cen could be due to amixing of unstable radial and non-radial p- and g-modes. Based onobservations collected at the Swiss 40~cm and 70~cm and at the Danish1.54~m telescopes, at the European Southern Observatory (La Silla,Chile)
|Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.|
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.
|Second astrolabe catalogue of Santiago.|
Positions for 350 FK5 and 164 FK5 Extension stars as determined with theDanjon astrolabe of Santiago and differences astrolabe-catalogue aregiven for Equinox J2000.0 and for the mean observation epoch of eachstar. The average mean error in alpha is +/-0.005s and +/-0.07" indelta. The mean epoch of observation of the catalogue is J1979.96.
|Chromospheric activity and stellar evolution - Clues from IUE data|
We investigate the dependence of chromospheric activity on stellarphysical parameters in a sample of cool giants and supergiants. Ca IIsurface fluxes for stars of known masses and evolutionary status arederived from published IUE Mg II observations. Adding these data to thesample of Pasquini et al. (1990) we find that chromospheric activity inevolved stars is better described by two stellar parameters, and a tightrelationship is found between activity, stellar Teff and Mass. Wediscuss this relationship arguing that the stellar evolutionary statuscould play a 'hidden' but fundamental role in determining the activitylevel of evolved late type stars.
|The calibration of the Stromgren photometric system for A, F and early G supergiants. I - The observational data|
An empirical calibration of the Stromgren uvby-beta photometric systemfor the A, F, and early G supergiants is being derived. This paperexplains the observational program and the photometric reductiontechniques used and presents a catalog of new Stromgren photometry forover 600 A, F, and G supergiants.
|Long-term photometry of variables at ESO. I - The first data catalogue (1982-1986)|
This paper presents the catalog of photometric data in the Stromgrensystem obtained during the first four years (October 1982 - September1986) of the Long-Term Photometry of Variables (LTPV) program at ESO.The data are available in computer-readable form.
|Physical data of the fundamental stars.|
|Groups of stars with common motion in the Galaxy - Groups of red supergiants of the luminosity classes I and II|
|Einstein Observatory magnitude-limited X-ray survey of late-type giant and supergiant stars|
Results are presented of an extensive X-ray survey of 380 giant andsupergiant stars of spectral types from F to M, carried out with theEinstein Observatory. It was found that the observed F giants orsubgiants (slightly evolved stars with a mass M less than about 2 solarmasses) are X-ray emitters at the same level of main-sequence stars ofsimilar spectral type. The G giants show a range of emissions more than3 orders of magnitude wide; some single G giants exist with X-rayluminosities comparable to RS CVn systems, while some nearby large Ggiants have upper limits on the X-ray emission below typical solarvalues. The K giants have an observed X-ray emission level significantlylower than F and F giants. None of the 29 M giants were detected, exceptfor one spectroscopic binary.
|Walraven photometry of nearby southern OB associations|
Homogeneous Walraven (VBLUW) photometry is presented for 5260 stars inthe regions of five nearby southern OB associations: Scorpio Centaurus(Sco OB2), Orion OB1, Canis Major OB1, Monoceros OB1, and Scutum OB2.Derived V and (B - V) in the Johnson system are included.
|Large and kinematically unbiased samples of G- and K-type stars. II - Observations of evolved stars in the Bright Star sample. III - Evolved young disk stars in the Bright Star sample|
Four color and RI observations were obtained for a large sample ofG-type and K-type stars in the Bright Star Catalogue. Data are firstpresented for 110 evolved stars. Photometry of evolved young diskpopulation stars have then been calibrated for luminosity, reddening,and metallicity on the basis of results for members of the Hyades andSirius superclusters. New DDO results are given for 120 stars.
|The distance and structure of the Coalsack. I - Photometric data|
The results of UBV and H-beta photometry for 284 stars of spectral typesB to F located in the area of the dark cloud Coalsack are presented.Most of the present stars are brighter than 10.0 mag and are classifiedin the MK system of Houk and Cowley (1975). For each star, the bestvalues for the extinction and distance modulus are provided, withtypical estimated errors of + or - 0.08 mag for the extinction and + or- 0.32 mag for the distance modulus. Possible misclassifications andspectral peculiarities are noted for several of the stars.
|Absolute flux calibration of the H and K lines of CA II - Chromospheric radiative losses in F and G-type stars|
Ca II H and K spectra of 81 (mainly Southern) F and G stars are analyzedusing two different calibration methods. It is shown that, for spectraof sufficiently high resolution, and for stars of relatively lowrotation rates, the calibrations of Linsky et al. (1979) and of Pasquiniet al. (1988) give essentially the same results. These calibrations areused to derive absolute surface fluxes in the H and K lines of Ca II for64 stars. It is shown that several late-F and early-G giants andsupergiants have Ca II H and K fluxes in excess of about 10 to the 6therg/sq cm s, much larger than those typically observed for normal giantsof later spectral types.
|The eclipsing binary system W CRU|
Photoelectric UBV observations of W Cru were obtained between 1984 and1985 using the 50-cm Edith Winstone Blackwell Cassegrain telescope. Thelight curve presents a continuous 'Beta Lyrae'-like variation, alongwith peculier irregularities of the order of 0.1 mag. The possibility offitting both high-mass and low-mass models to the data is considered.
|Infrared spectra of WN stars. II - WN7 and WN8 stars|
Moderate resolution (lambda/delta lambda less than 400) infrared spectrain the range 1-2.5 microns are presented for HD 86161(WN8), HD96548(WN8), and HD 151932(WN7). These data, in conjunction with existingoptical and UV data, will provide new insights into the structure ofWolf-Rayet stellar atmospheres, and are suitable for model input.
|On the rarity of FK COM stars|
Very high-dispersion spectra (2.5 A/mm) were obtained of 31 southernlate-type stars, predominantly early G giants, in an effort to find newrapidly rotating, active stars which would be FK Com-like. Measurementsof linewidths and the strength of chromospheric Ca II K-line emissionare presented, but no new star could be added to the class of 'rapidrotators'. Space densities and evolutionary lifetimes for FK Com starsare discussed.
|New UBVRI photometry for 900 supergiants|
A description is presented of the results obtained in connection with asystematic program of supergiant photometry on the Johnson UBVRI system.During the eight years after the start of the program, almost 1000 starshave been observed, about 400 three or more times each. The originalselection of stars used the spectral type catalog of Jaschek et al.(1964) to choose supergiants. Since observations were possible from bothChile and Canada, no declination limits were imposed, and no particularselection criteria were imposed other than to eliminate carbon stars.These are so red as to require enormous extrapolations of thetransformation equations.
|Erratum - Errors or Omissions in Star-Identifications in the General Catalogue of Trigonometric Stellar Parallaxes|
|A survey of variable yellow supergiants in the southern Milky Way|
Forty-three supergiants of spectral type F0-G8, including the RV Tauristar U Mon and the small-amplitude Cepheid HR 4768, have been monitoredin brightness for about a month. Three new variables are announced. HR6109 - a comparison star and a member of a spectroscopic binary with Pequals 40 days (Eggen 1973) - is suspected to be a Delta Scuti star. HR4912 shows a range of 0.32 magnitude in B; the period is between 44 and68 days. The Cepheid nature of HR 4912 cannot be established on thebasis of the data. HR 4110 - the central star of the galactic cluster IC2581 - shows a range in B of 0.07 magnitude and its most likely periodis about 59 days. Arguments are offered against the possible Cepheidinterpretation of HR 4110. The variability of HR 2910, HR 3026, and HD67458 is suspected. The star R Pup, which has been claimed anddisclaimed as a variable for a century, did not show significantvariation during the observing period.
|Standard Stars for Hα Photometry|
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1981A&AS...44..337S&db_key=AST
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|Proper motion RA:||-21.8|
|Proper motion Dec:||-15.4|
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