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Absolute dimensions of detached eclipsing binaries - I. The metallic-lined system WW Aurigae
WW Aurigae is a detached eclipsing binary composed of two metallic-linedA-type stars orbiting each other every 2.5 d. We have determined themasses and radii of both components to accuracies of 0.4 and 0.6 percent, respectively. From a cross-correlation analysis of high-resolutionspectra we find masses of 1.964 +/- 0.007 Msolar for theprimary star and 1.814 +/- 0.007 Msolar for the secondarystar. From an analysis of photoelectric uvby and UBV light curves wefind the radii of the stars to be 1.927 +/- 0.011 Rsolar and1.841 +/- 0.011 Rsolar, where the uncertainties have beencalculated using a Monte Carlo algorithm. Fundamental effectivetemperatures of the two stars have been derived, using the Hipparcosparallax of WW Aur and published ultraviolet, optical and infraredfluxes; these are 7960 +/- 420 and 7670 +/- 410 K. The masses, radii andeffective temperatures of WW Aur are only matched by theoreticalevolutionary models for a fractional initial metal abundance, Z, ofapproximately 0.06 and an age of roughly 90 Myr. This seems to be thehighest metal abundance inferred for a well-studied detached eclipsingbinary, but we find no evidence that it is related to the metallic-linednature of the stars. The circular orbit of WW Aur is in conflict withthe circularization time-scales of both the Tassoul and the Zahn tidaltheories and we suggest that this is due to pre-main-sequence evolutionor the presence of a circular orbit when the stars were formed.

An Assessment of Dynamical Mass Constraints on Pre-Main-Sequence Evolutionary Tracks
We have assembled a database of stars having both masses determined frommeasured orbital dynamics and sufficient spectral and photometricinformation for their placement on a theoretical H-R diagram. Our sampleconsists of 115 low-mass (M<2.0 Msolar) stars, 27pre-main-sequence and 88 main-sequence. We use a variety of availablepre-main-sequence evolutionary calculations to test the consistency ofpredicted stellar masses with dynamically determined masses. Despitesubstantial improvements in model physics over the past decade, largesystematic discrepancies still exist between empirical and theoreticallyderived masses. For main-sequence stars, all models considered predictmasses consistent with dynamical values above 1.2 Msolar andsome models predict consistent masses at solar or slightly lower masses,but no models predict consistent masses below 0.5 Msolar,with all models systematically underpredicting such low masses by5%-20%. The failure at low masses stems from the poor match of mostmodels to the empirical main sequence below temperatures of 3800 K, atwhich molecules become the dominant source of opacity and convection isthe dominant mode of energy transport. For the pre-main-sequence samplewe find similar trends. There is generally good agreement betweenpredicted and dynamical masses above 1.2 Msolar for allmodels. Below 1.2 Msolar and down to 0.3 Msolar(the lowest mass testable), most evolutionary models systematicallyunderpredict the dynamically determined masses by 10%-30%, on average,with the Lyon group models predicting marginally consistent masses inthe mean, although with large scatter. Over all mass ranges, theusefulness of dynamical mass constraints for pre-main-sequence stars isin many cases limited by the random errors caused by poorly determinedluminosities and especially temperatures of young stars. Adopting awarmer-than-dwarf temperature scale would help reconcile the systematicpre-main-sequence offset at the lowest masses, but the case for this isnot compelling, given the similar warm offset at older ages between mostsets of tracks and the empirical main sequence. Over all age ranges, thesystematic discrepancies between track-predicted and dynamicallydetermined masses appear to be dominated by inaccuracies in thetreatment of convection and in the adopted opacities.

Determination of the Ages of Close Binary Stars on the Main Sequence from Evolutionary Model Stars of Claret and Gimenez
A grid of isochrones, covering a wide range of stellar ages from thezero-age main sequence to 10 billion years, is calculated in the presentwork on the basis of the model stars of Claret and Gimenez withallowance for convective overshoot and mass loss by the components. Theages of 88 eclipsing variables on the main sequence from Andersen'scatalog and 100 chromospherically active stars from Strassmeier'scatalog are calculated with a description of the method of optimuminterpolation. Comparisons with age determinations by other authors aregiven and good agreement is established.

Detached double-lined eclipsing binaries as critical tests of stellar evolution. Age and metallicity determinations from the HR diagram
Detached, double-lined spectroscopic binaries that are also eclipsingprovide the most accurate determinations of stellar mass, radius,temperature and distance-independent luminosity for each of theirindividual components, and hence constitute a stringent test ofsingle-star stellar evolution theory. We compile a large sample of 60non-interacting, well-detached systems mostly with typical errorssmaller than 2% for mass and radius and smaller than 5% for effectivetemperature, and compare them with the properties predicted by stellarevolutionary tracks from a minimization method. To assess the systematicerrors introduced by a given set of tracks, we compare the resultsobtained using three widely-used independent sets of tracks, computedwith different physical ingredients (the Geneva, Padova and Granadamodels). We also test the hypothesis that the components of thesesystems are coeval and have the same metallicity, and compare thederived ages and metallicities with the ones obtained by fitting asingle isochrone to the system. Overall, there is a good agreement amongthe different determinations, and we provide a comprehensive discussionon the sub-sample of systems which either present problems or haveestimated metallicities. Although within the errors the published trackscan fit most of the systems, a large degeneracy between age andmetallicity remains. The power of the test is thus limited because themetallicities of most of the systems are unknown. The full version ofTable 6 is only available in the electronic form athttp://www.edpsciences.org

Rotational velocities of A-type stars in the northern hemisphere. II. Measurement of v sin i
This work is the second part of the set of measurements of v sin i forA-type stars, begun by Royer et al. (\cite{Ror_02a}). Spectra of 249 B8to F2-type stars brighter than V=7 have been collected at Observatoirede Haute-Provence (OHP). Fourier transforms of several line profiles inthe range 4200-4600 Å are used to derive v sin i from thefrequency of the first zero. Statistical analysis of the sampleindicates that measurement error mainly depends on v sin i and thisrelative error of the rotational velocity is found to be about 5% onaverage. The systematic shift with respect to standard values fromSlettebak et al. (\cite{Slk_75}), previously found in the first paper,is here confirmed. Comparisons with data from the literature agree withour findings: v sin i values from Slettebak et al. are underestimatedand the relation between both scales follows a linear law ensuremath vsin inew = 1.03 v sin iold+7.7. Finally, thesedata are combined with those from the previous paper (Royer et al.\cite{Ror_02a}), together with the catalogue of Abt & Morrell(\cite{AbtMol95}). The resulting sample includes some 2150 stars withhomogenized rotational velocities. Based on observations made atObservatoire de Haute Provence (CNRS), France. Tables \ref{results} and\ref{merging} are only available in electronic form at the CDS viaanonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/393/897

Surface Brightness--Color Relation for Eclipsing Binaries with ubvy Photometry
The relation between visual surface brightness and (b-y)_0 color indexis constructed for eclipsing binaries with Hipparcos parallaxes andphotometry in the Stromgren four-color ubvy system. The relation isconsistent with the Popper relation derived for stars with angulardiameters obtained mainly from interferometry or from the lunaroccultation method. It is shown that the Lutz-Kelker correction tomagnitudes is in this case negligible.

Estimating the ages of eclipsing variable DM-stars on the basis of the evolutionary star models by Maeder and Meynet
A set of isochrones covering a wide range of star ages from5\cdot106 to 1010 yr was built on the basis of thestellar models by A. Maeder and G. Meynet with overshooting and massloss for Population I stars with abundances (X, Y, Z) = 0.70, 0.28,0.02. The isochrones were used to compute the ages of 88 eclipsingvariable stars from the catalog by Andersen which lie on the mainsequence. The influence of initial data errors on the rezultes wasinvestigated. The ages derived are in good agreement with the results ofother authors.

Chemical composition of eclipsing binaries: a new approach to the helium-to-metal enrichment ratio
The chemical enrichment law Y(Z) is studied by using detacheddouble-lined eclipsing binaries with accurate absolute dimensions andeffective temperatures. A sample of 50 suitable systems was collectedfrom the literature, and their effective temperatures were carefullyre-determined. The chemical composition of each of the systems wasobtained by comparison with stellar evolutionary models, under theassumption that they should fit an isochrone to the observed propertiesof the components. Evolutionary models covering a wide grid in Z and Ywere adopted for our study. An algorithm was developed for searching thebest-fitting chemical composition (and the age) for the systems, basedon the minimization of a χ2 function. The errors (andbiases) of these parameters were estimated by means of Monte Carlosimulations, with special care put on the correlations existing betweenthe errors of both components. In order to check the physicalconsistency of the results, we compared our metallicity values withempirical determinations, obtaining excellent coherence. Theindependently derived Z and Y values yielded a determination of thechemical enrichment law via weighted linear least-squares fit. Our valueof the slope, ΔY/ΔZ=2.2+/-0.8, is in good agreement withrecent results, but it has a smaller formal error and it is free ofsystematic effects. Linear extrapolation of the enrichment law to zerometals leads to an estimation of the primordial helium abundance ofYp=0.225+/-0.013, possibly affected by systematics in theeffective temperature determination.

Metallicity-dependent effective temperature determination for eclipsing binaries from synthetic UVBY Strömgren photometry
Strömgren synthetic photometry from an empirically calibrated gridof stellar atmosphere models has been used to derive the effectivetemperature of each component of double lined spectroscopic (SB2)eclipsing binaries. For this purpose, we have selected a sub-sample of20 SB2s for which (b-y), m_1, and c_1 individual indices are available.This new determination of effective temperature has been performed in ahomogeneous way for all these stars. As the effective temperaturedetermination is related to the assumed metallicity, we exploresimultaneous solutions in the ({{T_eff}},{[Fe/H]})-plane and present ourresults as confidence regions computed to match the observed values ofsurface gravity, (b-y), m_1, and c_1, taking into account interstellarreddening. These confidence regions show that previous estimates of{{T_eff}} are often too optimistic, and that {[Fe/H]} should not beneglected in such determinations. Comparisons with Ribas et al. (1998)using Hipparcos parallaxes are also presented for 8 binaries of ourworking sample, showing good agreement with the most reliableparallaxes. This point gives a significant weight to the validity of theBaSeL models for synthetic photometry applications.

An extensive Delta a-photometric survey of southern B and A type bright stars
Photoelectric photometry of 803 southern BS objects in the Deltaa-system as detection tool for magnetic chemically peculiar (=CP2) starshas been carried out and compared to published spectral types. Thestatistical yield of such objects detected by both techniques ispractically the same. We show that there are several factors whichcontaminate the search for these stars, but this contamination is onlyof the order of 10% in both techniques. We find a smooth transition fromnormal to peculiar stars. Our sample exhibits the largest fraction ofCP2 stars at their bluest colour interval, i.e. 10% of all stars in thecolour range -0.19 <= B-V < -0.10 or -0.10 <= b-y < -0.05.No peculiar stars based on the Delta a-criterion were found at bluercolours. Towards the red side the fraction of CP2 stars drops to about3% for positive values of B-V or b-y with red limits roughlycorresponding to normal stars of spectral type A5. The photometricbehaviour of other peculiar stars: Am, HgMn, delta Del, lambda Boo, Heabnormal stars, as well as Be/shell stars and supergiants shows someslight, but definite deviations from normal stars. Spectroscopic andvisual binaries are not distinguished from normal stars in their Delta abehaviour. The results of this work justify larger statistical work(e.g. in open clusters) employing more time-saving photometric methods(CCD). \newpage Based on observations obtained at the European SouthernObservatory, La Silla, Chile. This research has made use of the Simbaddatabase, operated at CDS, Strasbourg, France. Table 2 is only availablein electronic form via anonymous ftp orhttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright late-type giants and supergiants
We present X-ray data for all late-type (A, F, G, K, M) giants andsupergiants (luminosity classes I to III-IV) listed in the Bright StarCatalogue that have been detected in the ROSAT all-sky survey.Altogether, our catalogue contains 450 entries of X-ray emitting evolvedlate-type stars, which corresponds to an average detection rate of about11.7 percent. The selection of the sample stars, the data analysis, thecriteria for an accepted match between star and X-ray source, and thedetermination of X-ray fluxes are described. Catalogue only available atCDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( or viahttp://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

Behaviour of calcium abundance in Am-Fm stars with evolution
Calcium abundance in the atmosphere of Am stars is examined as afunction of their evolutionary state within the main sequence. Newspectroscopic abundances as well as abundances obtained photometricallyby Guthrie (1987) are used, since they are mutually quite consistent.The main result of this work is that, contrary to earlier suggestions,calcium abundance does not tend to be larger in evolved Am stars than inunevolved ones, for objects distributed along a given evolutionary trackin the HR diagram. The trend appears to be the reverse, if it is presentat all. For our whole sample of Am stars, there is a significantcorrelation between calcium abundance and effective temperature, in thesense that the cooler objects are the most Ca-deficient, hence have themost pronounced Am peculiarity. This implies an apparent correlationbetween calcium deficiency and age, although the lack of Am starsyounger than log t = 8.6 seems real. Our results are fully consistentwith the low rate of Am stars observed in young clusters and withtheoretical predictions of time-dependent radiative diffusion (Alecian1996). Based on observations collected at Observatoire de Haute Provence(CNRS), France, and on data from the ESA HIPPARCOS astrometry satellite.

Effective temperature of detached eclipsing binaries from HIPPARCOS parallax
Effective temperatures of detached eclipsing binaries computed throughHipparcos trigonometric parallaxes are compared with the photometricdeterminations. The former are based on the values of the radius, theapparent visual magnitude and the bolometric correction of the star,whereas the latter are obtained from standard calibrations usingStromgren or Johnson colour indices. The working sample contains allwell-studied detached double-lined eclipsing binaries belonging to theHipparcos catalogue and with relative errors in the parallaxes smallerthan 20%. They cover a temperature range from 5000 K to 25000 K. A smallsystematic trend of 0.010 dex (s.d. 0.010) for T_eff <= 10000 K andof 0.015 dex (s.d. 0.060) for T_eff > 10000 K is observed between thetwo temperature determinations, that could be due to inaccuracies onphotometric effective temperatures. Based on data from the ESA Hipparcosastrometry satellite

Further critical tests of stellar evolution by means of double-lined eclipsing binaries
The most accurately measured stellar masses and radii come fromdetached, double-lined eclipsing binaries, as compiled by Andersen. Wepresent a detailed quantitative comparison of these fundamental datawith evolution models for single stars computed with our evolution code,both with and without the effects of enhanced mixing or overshootingbeyond the convective cores. We use the same prescription forovershooting that Schroder, Pols & Eggleton found to reproduce theproperties of zeta Aurigae binaries. For about 80 per cent of the 49binary systems in the sample, both sets of models provide a good fit toboth stars at a single age and metallicity within the observationaluncertainties. We discuss possible causes for the discrepancies in theother systems. For only one system, AI Hya, do the enhanced-mixingmodels provide a significantly better fit to the data. For two others(WX Cep and TZ For) the fit to the enhanced-mixing models is alsobetter. None of the other systems can individually distinguish betweenthe models with and without enhanced mixing. However, the number ofsystems in a post-main-sequence phase is in much better agreement withthe enhanced-mixing models. This test provides supportive evidence forextended mixing in main-sequence stars in the range 2-3Msolar.

Biparametric calibrations of stellar mass, radius and surface gravity using uvby-Hbeta_ photometry.
The aim of this study is to construct biparametric calibrations toestimate masses, radii and surface gravities for main-sequence starsusing a photometric index related to effective temperature and anotherrelated to evolution. For this purpose, we used a sample of detacheddouble-lined eclipsing binaries with accurate (=~1-2%) determinations ofmass and radius and with available Stroemgren-Crawford photometry forthe individual components of the binary system. The accuracies obtained,for the predicted dimensions when applied to single stars, are about5-8% in mass, 10-15% in radius and 0.08-0.10dex in surface gravity forstars in the main sequence with T_eff_ in the range between 7000K and20000K. Precisions are thus considerably better than those obtainedthrough single-parameter calibrations (using spectral type, T_eff_ orone colour index), and comparable to those derived through modelatmospheres and stellar evolutionary models, of much higher complexity.

Photometric versus empirical surface gravities of eclipsing binaries.
Systematic differences in photometric stellar surface gravitydetermination are studied by means of the comparison with empiricalvalues derived from detached double-lined eclipsing binaries.Photometric gravities were computed using Moon & Dworetsky(1985MNRAS.217..305M) grids based on Kurucz (1979ApJS...40....1K)atmosphere models, and empirical gravities were taken from Andersen(1991A&ARv...3...91A). Individual Stroemgren colours and βindices of each component of the binary system have to be taken intoaccount to correctly analyze the observed differences. A compilation ofdata on a sample containing 30 detached double-lined eclipsing binarieswith accurate (=~1-2%) determination of mass and radius and availableuvbyHbeta_ photometric data is also presented. Correction ofthe differences in terms of T_eff_ and logg for the range11000K

Absolute dimensions of eclipsing binaries. XXI. V906 Scorpii: a triple system member of M 7.
We present an analysis based on new uvby light curves and spectroscopicdata of the detached triple-lined B-type eclipsing binary V906 Sco. Theuvby light curves are analysed with an extended version of theWilson-Devinney program. The spectroscopic CCD observations are analysedwith both the Sterne and the Lehmann-Filhes methods. We conclude fromthe combined analysis that the triple system V906 Sco is a member of theopen cluster M 7 and that its B-type eclipsing components are still onthe main sequence, at an age of (2.4+/-0.3)x10^8^yrs, already close tothe TAMS (especially the more massive one). The system is older than thetime for circularization of the orbit, and the small eccentricity isprobably caused by the third component, which, however, is unlikely tobe the main responsible for the apsidal motion, probably more influencedby tidal and rotational deformation. We determine absolute dimensions ofhigh precision (errors <2%): M_A_=3.25+/-0.07, R_A_=3.52+/-0.04,M_B_=3.38+/-0.07 and R_B_=4.52+/-0.04, in solar units. The system isdetached, with both components in synchronous rotation, and thereforerepresentative for normal stars.

On the nature of the AM phenomenon or on a stabilization and the tidal mixing in binaries. II. Metallicity and pseudo-synchronization.
We reveal sufficient evidences that for Am binaries the metallicitymight depend on their orbital periods, P_orb_, rather than on vsini. Inparticular, δm_1_ index seems to decrease with increasing orbitalperiod up to at least P_orb_=~50d, probably even up to P_orb_=~200d.This gives further support to our "tidal mixing + stabilization"hypothesis formulated in Part I. Moreover, while the most metallic Amstars seem to have rather large periods the slowest rotators are foundto exhibit substantially shorter P_orb_. A questioning eye is thus caston the generally adopted view that Am peculiarity is caused by asuppressed rotationally induced mixing in slowly rotating `single'stars. The observed anticorrelation between rotation and metallicity mayhave also other than the `textbook' explanation, namely being the resultof the correlation between metallicity and orbital period, as themajority of Am binaries are possibly synchronized. We further argue thatthere is a tendency in Am binaries towards pseudo-synchronization up toP_orb_=~35d. This has, however, no serious impact on our conclusionsfrom Part I; on the contrary, they still hold even if this effect istaken into account.

A Catalogue of Correlations Between Eclipsing Binaries and Other Categories of Double Stars
Among the 9110 stars in The Bright Star Catalogue, there are 225eclipsing or ellipsoidal variables. A search has been made for these incatalogues of spectroscopic binaries, visual double or multiple stars,speckle interferometry, occulation binaries, and galatic clusters. Themajority of the photometric binaries are also members of groups ofhigher multiplicity. The variables are in systems ranging from one to 91stars, five on the average. 199 are either spectroscopic binaries (SB)or stars with variable radial velocity, with orbital periods known for160. Photometric periods are lacking for 48 while SB periods areavailable for 23 of these. Observers with photoelectric equipment areencouraged to plan observations to test if the SB periods are consistentwith photometric data. Observers are likewise encouraged to examinethose stars for which the photometric and SB periods appear to beinconsistent. Parallaxes are available for 86 of the stars, 41 of themindicating distances nearer than 50 parsecs.

Eclipsing binaries as IRAS sources.
In a systematic search we looked for coincidences in the positions ofeclipsing binaries and IRAS point sources as evidence of a physicalassociation. In a detailed discussion of the available optical andinfrared data combined with model calculations, we show that 50-75% ofthe coincidences between eclipsing binaries and IRAS sources are real.We discuss a subsample of 44 stars in some detail and surveyed thevicinity of them on POSS and SRC/ESO atlases for possible opticalcounterparts and present identification maps. In the cases of BS Sco andV 718 Sco the infrared radiation may come from an accretion disk.

On the nature of the AM phenomenon or on a stabilization and the tidal mixing in binaries. I. Orbital periods and rotation.
The paper casts a questioning eye on the unique role of the diffusiveparticle transport mechanism in explaining the Am phenomenon and arguesthat the so-called tidal effects might be of great importance incontrolling diffusion processes. A short period cutoff at =~1.2d as wellas a 180-800d gap were found in the orbital period distribution (OPD) ofAm binaries. The existence of the former can be ascribed to the state ofthe primaries with the almost-filled Roche lobes. The latter couldresult from the combined effects of the diffusion, tidal mixing andstabilization processes. Because the tidal mixing might surpassdiffusion in the binaries with the orbital periods P_orb_ less thanseveral hundred days and might thus sustain the He convection zone,which would otherwise disappear, no Am stars should lie below thisboundary. The fact that they are nevertheless seen there implies theexistence of some stabilization mechanism (as, e.g., that recentlyproposed by Tassoul & Tassoul 1992) for the binaries with orbitalperiods less than 180d. Further evidence is given to the fact that theOPD for the Am and the normal binaries with an A4-F1 primary arecomplementary to each other, from which it stems that Am stars are closeto the main sequence. There are, however, indications that they haveslightly larger radii (2.1-3 Rsun_) than expected for theirspectral type. The generally accepted rotational velocity cutoff at=~100km/s is shown to be of little value when applied on Am binaries ashere it is not a single quantity but, in fact, a function of P_orb_whose shape is strikingly similar to that of the curves of constantmetallicity as ascertained from observations. This also leads to thewell known overlap in rotational velocities of the normal and Am starsfor 402.5d.We have exploited this empirical cutoff function to calibrate thecorresponding turbulent diffusion coefficient associated with tidalmixing, having found out that the computed form of the lines of constantturbulence fits qualitatively the empirical shape of the curves ofconstant metallicity. As for larger orbital periods(20d55km/s found by Burkhart(1979) would then be nothing but a manifestation of insufficientlypopulated corresponding area of larger P_orb_.

Eclipse Monitoring of Eccentric Binary Systems
Not Available

The Relation between Rotational Velocities and Spectral Peculiarities among A-Type Stars
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995ApJS...99..135A&db_key=AST

Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

Effective Temperature Bolometric Correction and Mass Calibration of O-F
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1994MNRAS.268..119B&db_key=AST

Catalogue of astrophysical parameters of binary systems
Not Available

MK morphology of AM stars
We present the results of an analysis of the spectra obtained for asample of 27 Am stars. We find evidence for the presence of groups amongthese stars and argue that all Am stars exhibit a pseudoluminosityeffect.

MK morphological study of AM stars at 66 A/mm
The pseudoluminosity effect in the metallic line A-type stars found byAbt and Morgan (1976) is confirmed in a random sample of 27 Am stars.From a morphological study of their spectra in the wavelength interval3850-4400 A at a reciprocal dispersion of 66 A/mm, revised spectraltypes are given on the MK system for their K-line and metallic-linespectra. This shows that: (1) the segregation of weak Am from the Amstars largely agrees with that by Cowley et al. (1969); (2) all thestars in the sample are dwarfs according to their K-line classification;(3) more than 80 percent exhibit the pseudoluminosity effectsignificantly, with their metallic-line spectra resembling a giant oreven a supergiant in the violet (3850-4100 A), and a giant rather than adwarf in the blue region (4260-4400 A); and (4) in two-thirds of thestars under (3), the Sr II 4077 A line is found to have a markedlybrighter luminosity class compared to any region, and in more thanone-third of the sample it is comparable to that in Ap stars. Moreover,at least five stars exhibit characteristics which might suggest aspectrum variability; among these, the most striking example is 41 SexA. The metallic-line spectra of another five stars appear to be similarto A-shell type in different degrees. Less than 20 percent of the samplecomprises stars which do not show any significant differentialluminosity effect; these stars might have been misclassified or perhapsthey are in a quiescent state.

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Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:09h12m26.00s
Apparent magnitude:6.11
Distance:82.645 parsecs
Proper motion RA:-18.5
Proper motion Dec:19.6
B-T magnitude:6.381
V-T magnitude:6.127

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
Flamsteed21 Hya
HD 1989HD 79193
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 4891-1371-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0825-06765775
BSC 1991HR 3655
HIPHIP 45184

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