Home     Getting Started     To Survive in the Universe    
Inhabited Sky
    News@Sky     Astro Photo     The Collection     Forum     Blog New!     FAQ     Press     Login  

16 Sgr



Upload your image

DSS Images   Other Images

Related articles

SGR1806: optical transient candidates in SOHO/LASCO images.
Not Available

A Galactic O Star Catalog
We have produced a catalog of 378 Galactic O stars with accuratespectral classifications that is complete for V<8 but includes manyfainter stars. The catalog provides cross-identifications with othersources; coordinates (obtained in most cases from Tycho-2 data);astrometric distances for 24 of the nearest stars; optical (Tycho-2,Johnson, and Strömgren) and NIR photometry; group membership,runaway character, and multiplicity information; and a Web-based versionwith links to on-line services.

On the Hipparcos parallaxes of O stars
We compare the absolute visual magnitude of the majority of bright Ostars in the sky as predicted from their spectral type with the absolutemagnitude calculated from their apparent magnitude and the Hipparcosparallax. We find that many stars appear to be much fainter thanexpected, up to five magnitudes. We find no evidence for a correlationbetween magnitude differences and the stellar rotational velocity assuggested for OB stars by Lamers et al. (1997, A&A, 325, L25), whosesmall sample of stars is partly included in ours. Instead, by means of asimulation we show how these differences arise naturally from the largedistances at which O stars are located, and the level of precision ofthe parallax measurements achieved by Hipparcos. Straightforwardlyderiving a distance from the Hipparcos parallax yields reliable resultsfor one or two O stars only. We discuss several types of bias reportedin the literature in connection with parallax samples (Lutz-Kelker,Malmquist) and investigate how they affect the O star sample. Inaddition, we test three absolute magnitude calibrations from theliterature (Schmidt-Kaler et al. 1982, Landolt-Börnstein; Howarth& Prinja 1989, ApJS, 69, 527; Vacca et al. 1996, ApJ, 460, 914) andfind that they are consistent with the Hipparcos measurements. AlthoughO stars conform nicely to the simulation, we notice that some B stars inthe sample of \citeauthor{La97} have a magnitude difference larger thanexpected.

Toward an adequate method to isolate spectroscopic families of diffuse interstellar bands
We divide some of the observed diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) intofamilies that appear to have the spectral structure of single species.Three different methods are applied to separate such families, exploringthe best approach for future investigations of this type. Starting witha statistical treatment of the data, we found that statistical methodsby themselves give insufficient results. Two other methods of dataanalysis (`averaging equivalent widths' and `investigating the figureswith arranged spectrograms') were found to be more useful as tools forfinding the spectroscopic families of DIBs. On the basis of thesemethods, we suggest some candidates as `relatives' of 5780- and5797-Å bands.

High-Resolution Observations of Interstellar Ca I Absorption-Implications for Depletions and Electron Densities in Diffuse Clouds
We present high-resolution (FWHM~0.3-1.5 km s-1) spectra,obtained with the AAT UHRF, the McDonald Observatory 2.7 m coudéspectrograph, and/or the KPNO coudé feed, of interstellar Ca Iabsorption toward 30 Galactic stars. Comparisons of the column densitiesof Ca I, Ca II, K I, and other species-for individual componentsidentified in the line profiles and also when integrated over entirelines of sight-yield information on relative electron densities anddepletions (dependent on assumptions regarding the ionizationequilibrium). There is no obvious relationship between the ratio N(CaI)/N(Ca II) [equal to ne/(Γ/αr) forphotoionization equilibrium] and the fraction of hydrogen in molecularform f(H2) (often taken to be indicative of the local densitynH). For a smaller sample of sight lines for which thethermal pressure (nHT) and local density can be estimated viaanalysis of the C I fine-structure excitation, the average electrondensity inferred from C, Na, and K (assuming photoionizationequilibrium) seems to be independent of nH andnHT. While the electron density (ne) obtained fromthe ratio N(Ca I)/N(Ca II) is often significantly higher than the valuesderived from other elements, the patterns of relative nederived from different elements show both similarities and differencesfor different lines of sight-suggesting that additional processesbesides photoionization and radiative recombination commonly andsignificantly affect the ionization balance of heavy elements in diffuseinterstellar clouds. Such additional processes may also contribute tothe (apparently) larger than expected fractional ionizations(ne/nH) found for some lines of sight withindependent determinations of nH. In general, inclusion of``grain-assisted'' recombination does reduce the inferred ne,but it does not reconcile the ne estimated from differentelements; it may, however, suggest some dependence of ne onnH. The depletion of calcium may have a much weakerdependence on density than was suggested by earlier comparisons with CHand CN. Two appendices present similar high-resolution spectra of Fe Ifor a few stars and give a compilation of column density data for Ca I,Ca II, Fe I, and S I.

The total-to-selective extinction ratio determined from near IR photometry of OB stars
The paper presents an extensive list of the total to selectiveextinction ratios R calculated from the infrared magnitudes of 597 O andB stars using the extrapolation method. The IR magnitudes of these starswere taken from the literature. The IR colour excesses are determinedwith the aid of "artificial standards" - Wegner (1994). The individualand mean values of total to selective extinction ratios R differ in mostcases from the average value R=3.10 +/-0.05 - Wegner (1993) in differentOB associations. The relation between total to selective extinctionratios R determined in this paper and those calculated using the "methodof variable extinction" and the Cardelli et al. (1989) formulae isdiscussed. The R values presented in this paper can be used to determineindividual absolute magnitudes of reddened OB stars with knowntrigonometric parallaxes.

The Metamorphosis of SN 1998bw
We present and discuss the photometric and spectroscopic evolution ofthe peculiar SN 1998bw, associated with GRB 980425, through an analysisof optical and near-IR data collected at ESO-La Silla. The spectroscopicdata, spanning the period from day -9 to day +376 (relative to Bmaximum), have shown that this supernova (SN) was unprecedented,although somewhat similar to SN 1997ef. Maximum expansion velocities ashigh as 3×104 km s-1 to some extent mask itsresemblance to other Type Ic SNe. At intermediate phases, betweenphotospheric and fully nebular, the expansion velocities(~104 km s-1) remained exceptionally high comparedto those of other recorded core-collapse SNe at a similar phase. Themild linear polarization detected at early epochs suggests the presenceof asymmetry in the emitting material. The degree of asymmetry, however,cannot be decoded from these measurements alone. The He I 1.083 and2.058 μm lines are identified, and He is suggested to lie in an outerregion of the envelope. The temporal behavior of the fluxes and profilesof emission lines of Mg I] λ4571, [O I] λλ6300,6364, and a feature ascribed to Fe are traced to stimulate futuremodeling work. The uniqueness of SN 1998bw became less obvious once itentered the fully nebular phase (after 1 yr), when it was very similarto other Type Ib/c-IIb objects, such as the Type Ib SN 1996N and theType IIb SN 1993J, even though SN 1998bw was 1.4 mag brighter than SN1993J and 3 mag brighter than SN 1996N at a comparable phase. Thelate-phase optical photometry, which extends up to 403 days after Bmaximum, shows that the SN luminosity declined exponentially butsubstantially faster than the decay rate of 56Co. Theultraviolet-optical-infrared bolometric light curve, constructed usingall available optical data and the early JHK photometry presented inthis work, shows a slight flattening starting on about day +300. Sinceno clear evidence of ejecta-wind interaction was found in the late-timespectroscopy (see also the work of Sollerman and coworkers), this may bedue to the contribution of the positrons since most γ-rays escapethermalization at this phase. A contribution from the superposed H IIregion cannot, however, be excluded. Based on observations collected atESO-La Silla.

A Study of the Molecular Cloud toward the H {II} Regions S35 and S37 with NANTEN
We have made new observations of a large field of ~ 10 square degreestoward the two southern H {II} regions S35 and S37. Observations weremade in the 12CO, 13CO, and C18O J=1 -0 emission with the NANTEN telescope at Las Campanas, Chile. Theseobservations have revealed a giant molecular cloud of ~ 1.3 times105 MO in 12CO , highly elongated with a size of ~80 pc times ~ 20 pc, where a previously known active site of starformations, including GGD 27IR and HH 80/81, is located. The cloudappears lifted up to z ~ 100 pc from the galactic plane at aninclination angle of ~ 70deg, exhibiting indications ofstrong interactions with the H {II} regions. Star formation has beenfound to be very active in the cloud. We have discovered four molecularoutflows driven by luminous far-infrared sources of ~ 102 -104LO in addition to that previously known toward GGD 27IR.The activity is also demonstrated by the existence of several denseC18O clumps whose mass ranges from ~ 3 x 102 MO to~ 4 x 103 MO . The five molecular outflows are embedded inthese C18O clumps. In addition, a comparison with H {I} showsthat the CO cloud is located at the edge of an H {I} hole of ~ 55 pcradius. Since the H {I} gas surrounding the hole shows a signature ofexpansion at several km s-1, we suggest that the H {I} holerepresents a supershell created by some explosive events, like supernovaexplosions, during the last ~ 4 x 106 yr. This supershell mayalso provide an explanation for the origin of the moleculardistribution.

A Second Catalog of Orbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 Filter Photometry: Ultraviolet Photometry of 614 Stars
Ultraviolet photometry from the Wisconsin Experiment Package on theOrbiting Astronomical Observatory 2 (OAO 2) is presented for 614 stars.Previously unpublished magnitudes from 12 filter bandpasses withwavelengths ranging from 1330 to 4250 Å have been placed on thewhite dwarf model atmosphere absolute flux scale. The fluxes wereconverted to magnitudes using V=0 for F(V)=3.46x10^-9 ergs cm^-2 s^-1Å^-1, or m_lambda=-2.5logF_lambda-21.15. This second catalogeffectively doubles the amount of OAO 2 photometry available in theliterature and includes many objects too bright to be observed withmodern space observatories.

Five-colour photometry of OB-stars in the Southern Hemisphere
Observations of OB-stars, made in 1959 and 1960 at the Leiden SouthernStation near Hartebeespoortdam, South Africa, with the VBLUW photometerattached to the 90 cm light-collector, are given in this paper. They arecompared with photometry obtained by \cite[Graham (1968),]{gra68}\cite[Walraven & Walraven (1977),]{wal77} \cite[Lub & Pel(1977)]{lub77} and \cite[Van Genderen et al. (1984).]{gen84} Formulaefor the transformation of the present observations to those of\cite[Walraven & Walraven (1977)]{wal77} and \cite[Lub & Pel(1977)]{lub77} are given. Table 4 is only available in electronic format the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr ( orvia http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

On the relation between diffuse interstellar bands and simple molecular species
We present observations of the major diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs)at 5780 and 5797 Ä as well as literature data and our ownobservations of the violet lines of CH and CH(+) , in the lines of sighttoward some 70 stars representing various degrees of the interstellarreddening. The correlations are shown and discussed in the context ofindicators such as far-UV extinction parameters and neutral molecularabundances. The results show that the DIBs in question (lambda lambda5797 and 5780) both probably form in diffuse cloud interiors, in arelated regime where CH and H_2 form. The ratio of the two DIBscorrelates with CH abundance, confirming that the lambda 5797 carrier isfavoured in enhanced molecular gas regions over the lambda 5780 carrier.The ratio of the two DIBs correlates poorly with CH(+) abundance. Ourcompilation of observational data also suggests that the DIB ratio maybe equally useful as a cloud type indicator as is R_V, the ratio oftotal to selective extinction, and much more readily observed. Based onobservations obtained at the Russian Special Astrophysical Observatory(SAO), Terskol Observatory (TER), Canada France Hawaii Telescope (CFHT),European Southern Observatory (ESO), Observatoire de Haute-Provence(OHP)

A search for X-ray evidence of a compact companion to the unusual Wolf-Rayet star HD 50896 (EZ CMa)
We analyze results of a ~=25 ksec ASCA X-ray observation of the unusualWolf-Rayet star HD 50896 (= EZ CMa). This WN5 star shows optical andultraviolet variability at a 3.766 day period, which has beeninterpreted as a possible signature of a compact companion. Ourobjective was to search for evidence of hard X-rays ( >= 5 keV) whichcould be present if the WN5 wind is accreting onto a compact object. TheASCA spectra are dominated by emission below 5 keV and show nosignificant emission in the harder 5-10 keV range. Weak emission linesare present, and the X-rays arise in an optically thin plasma whichspans a range of temperatures from <= 0.4 keV up to at least ~=2 keV.Excess X-ray absorption above the interstellar value is present, but thecolumn density is no larger than N_H ~ 10^22 cm^-2. Theabsorption-corrected X-ray luminosity L_x (0.5-10 keV)=10^32.85 erg s^-1gives L_x/L_bol~=10^-6, a value that is typical of WN stars. No X-rayvariability was detected.Our main conclusion is that the X-rayproperties of HD 50896 are inconsistent with the behavior expected forwind accretion onto a neutron star or black hole companion. Alternativemodels based on wind shocks can explain most aspects of the X-raybehavior, and we argue that the hotter plasma near ~ 2 keV could be dueto the WR wind shocking onto a normal (nondegenerate) companion.

UBV beta Database for Case-Hamburg Northern and Southern Luminous Stars
A database of photoelectric UBV beta photometry for stars listed in theCase-Hamburg northern and southern Milky Way luminous stars surveys hasbeen compiled from the original research literature. Consisting of over16,000 observations of some 7300 stars from over 500 sources, thisdatabase constitutes the most complete compilation of such photometryavailable for intrinsically luminous stars around the Galactic plane.Over 5000 stars listed in the Case-Hamburg surveys still lackfundamental photometric data.

ICCD speckle observations of binary stars. XIX - an astrometric/spectroscopic survey of O stars
We present the results of a speckle interferometric survey made with theCHARA speckle camera and 4 m class telescopes of Galactic O-type starswith V less than 8. We can detect with the speckle camera binaries inthe angular separation range 0.035-1.5 arcsec with delta M less than 3,and we have discovered 15 binaries among 227 O-type systems. We combinedour results on visual binaries with measurements of wider pairs from theWashington Double Star Catalog and fainter pairs from the HipparcosCatalog, and we made a literature survey of the spectroscopic binariesamong the sample. We then investigated the overall binary frequency ofthe sample and the orbital characteristics of the known binaries.Binaries are common among O stars in clusters and associations but lessso among field and especially runaway stars. There are many triplesystems among the speckle binaries, and we discuss their possible rolein the ejection of stars from clusters. The period distribution of thebinaries is bimodal in log P, but we suggest that binaries with periodsof years and decades may eventually be found to fill the gap. The massratio distribution of the visual binaries increases toward lower massratios, but low mass ratio companions are rare among close,spectroscopic binaries. We present distributions of the eccentricity andlongitude of periastron for spectroscopic binaries with ellipticalorbits, and we find strong evidence of a bias in the longitude ofperiastron distribution.

Cross-correlation characteristics of OB stars from IUE spectroscopy
We present a catalogue of homogeneous measures of the linewidthparameter, v_esin i, for 373 O-type stars and early B supergiants(including the separate components of 25 binary and three triplesystems), produced by cross-correlating high-resolution,short-wavelength IUE spectra against a `template' spectrum of tauSco. Wealso tabulate terminal velocities. There are no O supergiants in oursample with v_esin i<65 km s^-1, and only one supergiant earlier thanB5 has v_esin i<50 km s^-1, confirming that an important linebroadening mechanism in addition to rotation must be present in theseobjects. A calibration of the area under the cross-correlation peakagainst spectral type is used to obtain estimates of continuum intensityratios of the components in 28 spectroscopically binary or multiplesystems. At least seven SB2 systems show evidence for the `Struve-Sahadeeffect', a systematic variation in relative line strength as a functionof orbital phase. The stellar wind profiles of the most rapid rotator inour sample, the O9III:n* star HD 191423 (v_esin i=436km s^-1), show itto have a `wind-compressed disc' similar to that of HD 93521; this starand other rapid rotators are good candidates for studies of non-radialpulsation.

A Survey for H alpha Emission in Massive Binaries: The Search for Colliding Wind Candidates
I report the results of the first all-sky survey of H alpha emission inthe spectra of O-type binaries. The survey includes 26 systems, of which10 have emission that extends clearly above the continuum. This is thefirst report of emission for four of these. An additional three systemsshow small distortions in the H alpha profile that may result from weakemission. I compare the distribution of emission systems in H-R diagramsfor both binary and single stars, using a survey of single O-type starsdone by Conti (1974). Emission in main-sequence systems is extremelyrare and is completely absent in my sample of binary stars. Among binarystars, 78% of the systems containing giants show some emission, while nosingle giants in Conti's sample do. In the case of supergiants, 78% ofsingle stars show emission, while all supergiant binaries show strongemission. H alpha emission may come from a variety sources, but the factthat binaries have a higher incidence and strength of emission inpost--main-sequence stages may indicate that wind interactions are acommon source of emission in massive binaries. To ascertain whether ornot colliding winds have been observed, it will be necessary to studythe H alpha line profile throughout several orbits of each candidatecolliding wind system and look for recurring orbital-phase--relatedvariations. Such a study is underway.

A Radial Velocity Database for Stephenson-Sanduleak Southern Luminous Stars
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1997AJ....113..823R&db_key=AST

A Spectral Atlas of Hot, Luminous Stars at 2 Microns
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJS..107..281H&db_key=AST

Far-Ultraviolet Stellar Photometry: Fields Centered on rho Ophiuchi and the Galactic Center
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJS..104..101S&db_key=AST

Projected Rotational Velocities of O-Type Stars
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1996ApJ...463..737P&db_key=AST

The ROSAT all-sky survey catalogue of optically bright OB-type stars.
For the detailed statistical analysis of the X-ray emission of hot starswe selected all stars of spectral type O and B listed in the Yale BrightStar Catalogue and searched for them in the ROSAT All-Sky Survey. Inthis paper we describe the selection and preparation of the data andpresent a compilation of the derived X-ray data for a complete sample ofbright OB stars.

Studies of H I self-absorption in the Riegel & Crutcher cold cloud
H I profiles of high velocity-resolution are presented for the range ofgalactic latitude b=b=-6 deg.2 to +8 deg.9 (at intervals of 0 deg.2) atlongitude L=9 deg.87. The Riegel & Crutcher cold cloud is detectedin self-absorption between b=-4 deg.2 and +8 deg, which defines thelatitude extent of the cloud in absorption at this longitude; outsidethis latitude range the H I is observed in emission at a similarvelocity. The velocity structure and H I column densities are derivedfor the cold cloud. A peak H I column density of ~=2.6x10^20 cm^-2ismeasured for a small region of angular extent ~=0 deg.2 close to theplane; for an assumed distance of 125 pc this corresponds to ~=2 pc,whilst the latitude extent of the cloud is ~=30 pc. The observationsreveal a nearby, extensive structure of diffuse gas which, below theplane, is receding with a velocity (LSR) ~=6 km s^-1. Within the coldcloud region the velocity structure becomes more complex, and above theplane the velocity is reduced to ~=3 km s^-1. Some properties of thecold cloud are examined by combining the H I observations with opticaland UV spectral data from the literature, which indicate that the cloudis dense and thin in extent. The observations support earliersuggestions of an association between the cold cloud and the localmolecular cloud complexes which define the ridge reported by Dame et al.as well as with diffuse H I gas observed in emission further from theplane at similar velocity.

A spectroscopic database for Stephenson-Sanduleak Southern Luminous Stars
A database of published spectral classifications for objects in theStepenson-Sanduleak Luminous Stars in the Southern Milky Way catalog hasbeen compiled from the literature. A total of 6182 classifications for2562 stars from 139 sources are incorporated.

Far-ultraviolet stellar photometry: Fields in Sagittarius and Scorpius
Far-ultraviolet photometry for 741 objects in a field in Sagittariuscentered near M8 and 541 objects in a field centered near sigma Scorpiiis presented. These data were extracted from electographic imagesobtained with two cameras during a shuttle flight in 1991 April/May. Thecameras provided band passes with lambdaeff = 1375 A andlambdaeff = 1781 A. Synthetic colors show that these bandsare sensitive to effective temperature for hot stars. Our measurementswere placed on a quantitative far-ultraviolet magnitude scale byconvolving the spectra of stars observed by IUE with our cameras'spectral response functions. Fifty-eight percent of the ultravioletobjects were identified with visible stars using the SIMBAD databasewhile another 40% of the objects are blends of early type stars tooclose together to separate with our resolution. Our photometry iscompared with that from the TD-1, OAO 2, and ANS satellites and the S201(Apollo 16) far-ultraviolet camera and found to agree at the level of afew tenths of a magnitude. Unlike previous studies, almost half of theidentified visual counterparts to the ultraviolet objects are early Bstars. A plot of distance modulus against ultraviolet color excessreveals a significant population of stars with strong ultravioletexcess.

An IRAS/ISSA Survey of Bow Shocks Around Runaway Stars
Abstract image available at:http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-bib_query?1995AJ....110.2914V&db_key=AST

Vitesses radiales. Catalogue WEB: Wilson Evans Batten. Subtittle: Radial velocities: The Wilson-Evans-Batten catalogue.
We give a common version of the two catalogues of Mean Radial Velocitiesby Wilson (1963) and Evans (1978) to which we have added the catalogueof spectroscopic binary systems (Batten et al. 1989). For each star,when possible, we give: 1) an acronym to enter SIMBAD (Set ofIdentifications Measurements and Bibliography for Astronomical Data) ofthe CDS (Centre de Donnees Astronomiques de Strasbourg). 2) the numberHIC of the HIPPARCOS catalogue (Turon 1992). 3) the CCDM number(Catalogue des Composantes des etoiles Doubles et Multiples) byDommanget & Nys (1994). For the cluster stars, a precise study hasbeen done, on the identificator numbers. Numerous remarks point out theproblems we have had to deal with.

An IUE survey of interstellar H I LY alpha absorption. 1: Column densities
We measure Galactic interstellar neutral hydrogen column densities byanalyzing archival interstellar Ly alpha absorption line data toward 554B2 and hotter stars observed at high resolution with the IUE satellite.This study more than doubles the number of lines of sight with measuresof N(H I) based on Ly alpha. We have included the scattered lightbackground correction algorithm of Bianchi and Bohlin in our datareduction. We use the correlation between the Balmer discontinuity(c1) index and the stellar Ly alpha absorption in order toassess the effects of stellar Ly alpha contamination. Approximately 40%of the B stars with measured (c1) index, exhibit seriousstellar Ly alpha contamination. One table contains the derived values ofthe interstellar N(H I) for 393 stars with at most small amounts ofstellar contamination. Another lists the observed values of total N(H I)for 161 stars with suspected stellar Ly alpha contamination and/oruncertain stellar parameters.

Chemical transitions for interstellar C2 and CN in cloud envelopes
Observations were made of absorption from CH, C2, and CN towardmoderately reddened stars in Sco, OB2, Ceo OB3, and Taurus/Auriga. Forthese directions, most of the reddening is associated with a singlecloud complex, for example, the rho Ophiuchus molecular cloud, and as aresult, the observations probe moderately dense material. When combinedwith avaliable data for nearby directions, the survey provides the basisfor a comprehensive analysis of the chemistry for these species. Thechemical transitions affecting C2 and CN in cloud envelopes wereanalyzed. The depth into a cloud at which a transition takes place wascharacterized by tauuv, the grain optical depth at 1000 A.One transition at tauuv approx. = 2, which arises from, theconversion of C(+) into CO, affects the chemistries for both moleculesbecause of the key role this ion plays. A second one involvingproduction terms in the CN chemistry occurs at tauuv ofapprox. = 3; neutral reactions which C2 and CH is more important atlarger values for tauuv. The transition fromphotodissociation to chemical destruction takes place attauuv approx. = 4.5 for C2 and CN. The observational data forstars in Sco OB2, Cep OB3, and Taurus/Auriga were studied with chemicalrate equations containing the most important production and destructionmechanisms. Because the sample of stars in Sco OB2 includes sight lineswith Av ranging from 1-4 mag, sight lines dominated byphotochemistry could be analyzed separately from those controlled bygas-phase destruction. The analysis yielded values for two poorly knownrate constants for reactions involved in the production of CN; thereactions are C2 + N yields CN + C and C(+) + NH yields all products.The other directions were analyzed with the inferred values. Thepredicted column densities for C2 and CN agree with the observed valuesto better than 50%, and in most instances 20%. When combining theestimates for density and temperature derived from chemical modeling andmolecular excitation for a specific cloud, such as the rho Ophiuchusmolecular cloud, the portion of the cloud envelope probed by C2 and CNabsorption was found to be in pressure equilibrium.

CH(+) in the interstellar medium
This paper describes observations of interstellar CH(+) along the linesof sight to O and B stars with E(B-V)s up to +1.13. Along some lines ofsight with strong detections of CH(+), we find distinct radial velocityshifts between the CH(+) lines and other neutral species, such as Ca Iand CH. The shifts are small but are predicted by shock models of CH(+)formation in which the shock is inclined with respect to the observer.We have also found no column densities exceeding approximately1013.8/sq cm. When these data are examined along with theother CH(+) data collected from the literature, the previously seentendency of CH(+) column density to increase with E(B-V) does notcontinue beyond reddenings of about +0.6. These findings offer supportto the shock model of CH(+) formation for at least some lines of sight.

Submit a new article

Related links

  • - No Links Found -
Submit a new link

Member of following groups:

Observation and Astrometry data

Right ascension:18h15m12.90s
Apparent magnitude:5.95
Distance:10000000 parsecs
Proper motion RA:0
Proper motion Dec:0
B-T magnitude:5.936
V-T magnitude:5.954

Catalogs and designations:
Proper Names   (Edit)
Flamsteed16 Sgr
HD 1989HD 167263
TYCHO-2 2000TYC 6272-89-1
USNO-A2.0USNO-A2 0675-24662246
BSC 1991HR 6823
HIPHIP 89440

→ Request more catalogs and designations from VizieR